United States

United States of America
Flag of the United States
Great Seal of the United States
Flag Great Seal
Motto: 
Projection of North America with the United States in green
The United States and its territories
The United States including its territories
Capital Washington, D.C.
38°53′N 77°01′W / 38°53′N 77°01′W / 38.883; -77.017
Largest city New York City
40°43′N 74°00′W / 40°43′N 74°00′W / 40.717; -74.000
Official languages None at federal level [fn 1]
National language English [fn 2]
Ethnic groups By race: [8]
77.1% White
13.3% Black
2.6% Other/multiracial
5.6% Asian
1.2% Native
0.2% Pacific Islander
Ethnicity:
17.6% Hispanic or Latino
82.4% non-Hispanic or Latino
Religion 70.6% Christian
1.9% Jewish
0.9% Muslim
0.7% Buddhist
0.7% Hindu
1.8% Other faiths
22.8% Irreligious [9]
Demonym American
Government Federal presidential constitutional republic
•  President
Donald Trump
Mike Pence
Paul Ryan
John Roberts
Legislature Congress
Senate
House of Representatives
July 4, 1776
March 1, 1781
September 3, 1783
June 21, 1788
March 24, 1976
Area
• Total area
3,796,742 sq mi (9,833,520 km2) [10] [fn 3] ( 3rd/4th)
• Water (%)
6.97
• Total land area
3,531,905 sq mi (9,147,590 km2)
Population
• 2017 estimate
325,145,963 [12] ( 3rd)
• 2010 census
309,349,689 [13] ( 3rd)
• Density
90.6/sq mi (35.0/km2) ( 180th)
GDP ( PPP) 2016 estimate
• Total
$18.558 trillion [14] ( 2nd)
• Per capita
$57,220 [14] ( 14th)
GDP (nominal) 2016 estimate
• Total
$18.558 trillion [14] ( 1st)
• Per capita
$57,220 [14] ( 6th)
Gini (2013) 40.8 [15] [16] [17]
medium
HDI (2015) Increase 0.920 [18]
very high ·  10th
Currency United States dollar ($) ( USD)
Time zone ( UTC−4 to −12, +10, +11)
• Summer ( DST)
 ( UTC−4 to −10 [fn 4])
Date format mm/dd/yyyy ( AD)
Drives on the right [fn 5]
Calling code +1
ISO 3166 code US
Internet TLD .us    .gov    .mil    .edu

The United States of America ə/ (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic [19] [20] composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. [fn 6] Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid- Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea and encompass nine time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries. [22] [23]

At 3.8 million square miles (9.8 million km2) [11] and with over 324 million people, the United States is the world's third- or fourth-largest country by total area, [fn 7] third-largest by land area, and the third-most populous. It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, and is home to the world's largest immigrant population. [28] The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city is New York City; nine other major metropolitan areas—each with at least 4.5 million inhabitants and the largest having more than 13 million people—are Los Angeles, Chicago, Dallas, Houston, Philadelphia, Miami, Atlanta, Boston, and San Francisco.

Paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. [29] European colonization began in the 16th century. The United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the Seven Years' War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775. On July 4, 1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the colonies unanimously adopted the Declaration of Independence. The war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power. [30] The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, adopted in 1781, were felt to have provided inadequate federal powers. The first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties.

The United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, [31] displacing Native American tribes, acquiring new territories, and gradually admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. [31] During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of legal slavery in the country. [32] [33] By the end of that century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean, [34] and its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. [35] The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power. The United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, and a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. [36] The U.S. is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States (OAS), and other international organizations.

The United States is a highly developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP. Though its population is only 4.3% of the world total, [37] Americans hold nearly 40% of the total wealth in the world. [38] The United States ranks among the highest in several measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, [39] human development, per capita GDP, and productivity per person. [40] While the U.S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. [41] Accounting for approximately a quarter of global GDP [42] and a third of global military spending, [43] the United States is the world's foremost economic and military power. The United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations. [44]

Etymology

America is named after Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci. [45] [46]

In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere "America" in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci ( Latin: Americus Vespucius). [45] The first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq., George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army. Addressed to Lt. Col. Joseph Reed, Moylan expressed his wish to carry the "full and ample powers of the United States of America" to Spain to assist in the revolutionary war effort. [47] [48] [49]

The first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. [50] [51] The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the 'United States of America.'" [52] The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be 'The United States of America'". [53] In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence. [54] [55] This draft of the document did not surface until June 21, 1776, and it is unclear whether it was written before or after Dickinson used the term in his June 17 draft of the Articles of Confederation. [52] In the final Fourth of July version of the Declaration, the title was changed to read, "The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America". [56] The preamble of the Constitution states "...establish this Constitution for the United States of America."

The short form "United States" is also standard. Other common forms are the "U.S.", the "USA", and "America". Colloquial names are the "U.S. of A." and, internationally, the "States". " Columbia", a name popular in poetry and songs of the late 18th century, derives its origin from Christopher Columbus; it appears in the name " District of Columbia". [57] In non-English languages, the name is frequently the translation of either the "United States" or "United States of America", and colloquially as "America". In addition, an abbreviation (e.g. USA) is sometimes used. [58]

The phrase "United States" was originally plural, a description of a collection of independent states—e.g., "the United States are"—including in the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1865. The singular form—e.g., "the United States is"—became popular after the end of the American Civil War. The singular form is now standard; the plural form is retained in the idiom "these United States". [59] The difference is more significant than usage; it is a difference between a collection of states and a unit. [60]

A citizen of the United States is an " American". "United States", "American" and "U.S." refer to the country adjectivally ("American values", "U.S. forces"). In English, the word " American" rarely refers to topics or subjects not connected with the United States. [61]

Other Languages
Alemannisch: USA
አማርኛ: አሜሪካ
aragonés: Estatos Unitos
Aymar aru: Istadus Unidus
Bahasa Banjar: Amirika Serikat
Bân-lâm-gú: Bí-kok
Basa Banyumasan: Amerika Serikat
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Злучаныя Штаты Амэрыкі
Bikol Central: Estados Unidos
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Estados Unidos de America
Chi-Chewa: United States
chiTumbuka: United States
dansk: USA
Deitsch: Amerikaa
ދިވެހިބަސް: އެމެރިކާ
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Stat Unî
español: Estados Unidos
Esperanto: Usono
estremeñu: Estaus Uníus
eʋegbe: United States
Fiji Hindi: United States
føroyskt: USA
français: États-Unis
贛語: 美國
Gĩkũyũ: United States
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: अमेरिकेचीं संयुक्त राज्यां
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Mî-koet
한국어: 미국
Hausa: Amurika
Ido: Usa
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: তিলপারাষ্ট্র
Bahasa Indonesia: Amerika Serikat
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᐊᒥᐊᓕᑲ
isiZulu: IMelika
íslenska: Bandaríkin
kalaallisut: Naalagaaffeqatigiit
Kapampangan: Estados Unidos
kernowek: Statys Unys
Kiswahili: Marekani
Kreyòl ayisyen: Etazini
Livvinkarjala: Amierikan Yhtysvallat
la .lojban.: mergu'e
Luganda: Amerika
Malagasy: Etazonia
مصرى: امريكا
Bahasa Melayu: Amerika Syarikat
Baso Minangkabau: Amerika Sarikat
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Mī-guók
Dorerin Naoero: Eben Merika
Na Vosa Vakaviti: United States
Nederlands: Verenigde Staten
Nēhiyawēwin / ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣ: ᑭᐦᒋ ᒨᐦᑯᒫᓇᐢᑭᕀ
Norfuk / Pitkern: Yunitid Staits
norsk bokmål: USA
norsk nynorsk: USA
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Amerika Qoʻshma Shtatlari
Pangasinan: Estados Unidos
پنجابی: امریکہ
ភាសាខ្មែរ: សហរដ្ឋអាមេរិក
Tok Pisin: Ol Yunaitet Stet
Plattdüütsch: USA
português: Estados Unidos
reo tahiti: Fenua Marite
rumantsch: Stadis Unids
Sesotho sa Leboa: United States of America
Setswana: USA
sicilianu: Stati Uniti
Simple English: United States
slovenčina: Spojené štáty
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Амєрїканьскꙑ Ѥдьнѥнꙑ Дрьжавꙑ
Sranantongo: Kondre Makandrameki
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Sjedinjene Američke Države
Basa Sunda: Amérika Sarikat
svenska: USA
ไทย: สหรัฐ
Tsetsêhestâhese: United States
Twi: USA
Vahcuengh: Meijgoz
Tiếng Việt: Hoa Kỳ
Volapük: Lamerikän
文言: 美國
吴语: 美国
Xitsonga: Amerikha
粵語: 美國
žemaitėška: JAV
中文: 美国