Parts of the West Bank allocated to the settlements, as of January 2012 (in pink and purple color).
Israeli settlements are
Israeli civilian communities built on
occupied by Israel since the 1967
 Resolution 2334 concerns such settlements in the
West Bank and
Fourth Geneva Convention makes it illegal for nations to move populations and establish settlements in territories acquired in a war, and an overwhelming number of countries consider the Israeli settlements to be
illegal on that basis.
 Israel states that these are not "occupied" but "disputed" territories because "there were no established sovereigns in the West Bank or
Gaza Strip prior to the Six Day War".
 This argument was rejected by the
International Court of Justice in 2004.
The UN Security Council previously addressed Israeli settlements in
UN Security Council Resolution 446 and Resolution 465. The Council also endorsed the
Road map for peace, which required a freeze to settlement expansion in
In February 2011, during
Barack Obama's first administration, the US used its
veto power to block a similar UN Security Council resolution
 and settlement activity has grown substantially. At least 100,000 settlers have been added since Obama took office,
The Quartet report in July 2016 said that 570,000 Israelis lived in the settlements.
 Prior to voting on the resolution, diplomats predicted that US frustration with the growth of settlements, as well as the poor relationship between President Obama and the Israeli Prime Minister
Benyamin Netanyahu, might cause the US to abstain, rather than veto the resolution.
 Netanyahu was confident that Israel’s diplomatic standing was on the rise, and that the world was no longer very interested in the Palestinian issue.
 Until the U.S. abstention led to the passage of UNSCR 2334, Obama had been unique among American Presidents for not allowing any resolution critical of Israel to pass through the Security Council.