United Kingdom

  • united kingdom of great britain and northern ireland

    a flag featuring both cross and saltire in red, white and blue
    flag
    anthem: "god save the queen"[note 1]
    royal coats of arms:[note 2]
    royal coat of arms of the united kingdom.svgroyal coat of arms of the united kingdom (scotland).svg
    europe-uk (orthographic projection).svg
    europe-uk.svg
    location of the united kingdom (dark green)

    in europe (dark grey)

    capital
    and largest city
    london
    51°30′n 0°7′w / 51°30′n 0°7′w / 51.500; -0.117
    official language
    and national language
    english
    regional and minority languages[note 3]
    • scots
    • ulster scots
    • welsh
    • cornish
    • scottish gaelic
    • irish
    ethnic groups
    (2011)
    • 87.1% white[note 4]
    • 7.0% asian
    • 3.0% black
    • 2.0% mixed
    • 0.9% others
    religion
    (2011[6][7])
    • 59.5% christian
    • 25.7% irreligious
    • 4.4% muslim
    • 1.3% hindu
    • 0.7% sikh
    • 0.4% jewish
    • 0.4% buddhist
    • 0.4% other
    • 7.2% unknown
    demonym(s)
    • british
    • briton
    constituent countries
    • england
    • scotland
    • wales
    • northern ireland
    governmentunitary parliamentary
    constitutional monarchy
    • monarch
    elizabeth ii
    • prime minister
    boris johnson
    legislatureparliament
    • upper house
    house of lords
    • lower house
    house of commons
    formation
    • laws in wales acts
    1535 and 1542
    • union of the crowns under james vi and i
    24 march 1603
    • acts of union of england and scotland
    1 may 1707
    • acts of union of great britain and ireland
    1 january 1801
    • irish free state constitution act
    5 december 1922
    • accession to the european communities[note 5]
    1 january 1973
    • withdrawal from the european union
    31 january 2020
    area
    • total
    242,495 km2 (93,628 sq mi)[8] (78th)
    • water (%)
    1.34
    population
    • 2020 estimate
    increase 67,886,004[9] (21st)
    • 2011 census
    63,182,178[10] (22nd)
    • density
    270.7/km2 (701.1/sq mi) (50th)
    gdp (ppp)2019 estimate
    • total
    increase $3.131 trillion[11] (9th)
    • per capita
    increase $46,827[11] (26th)
    gdp (nominal)2019 estimate
    • total
    decrease $2.744 trillion[11] (6th)
    • per capita
    decrease $41,030[11] (20th)
    gini (2017)negative increase 33.1[12]
    medium · 33rd
    hdi (2018)increase 0.920[13]
    very high · 15th
    currencypound sterling[note 6] (gbp)
    time zoneutc (greenwich mean time, wet)
    • summer (dst)
    utc+1 (british summer time, west)
    [note 7]
    date formatdd/mm/yyyy
    yyyy-mm-dd (ad)
    mains electricity230 v–50 hz
    driving sideleft[note 8]
    calling code+44[note 9]
    iso 3166 codegb
    internet tld.uk[note 10]

    the united kingdom of great britain and northern ireland, commonly known as the united kingdom (uk or u.k.)[14] or britain,[note 11] is a sovereign country located off the north­western coast of the european mainland. the united kingdom includes the island of great britain, the north­eastern part of the island of ireland, and many smaller islands.[15] northern ireland shares a land border with the republic of ireland. otherwise, the united kingdom is surrounded by the atlantic ocean, with the north sea to the east, the english channel to the south and the celtic sea to the southwest, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world. the irish sea separates great britain and ireland. the total area of the united kingdom is 94,000 square miles (240,000 km2).

    the united kingdom is a unitary parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy.[note 12][16][17] the current monarch is queen elizabeth ii, who has reigned since 1952, making her the world's longest-serving current head of state.[18] the united kingdom's capital is london, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million.[19] other major cities include birmingham, glasgow, leeds, liverpool, and manchester.

    the united kingdom consists of four constituent countries: england, scotland, wales and northern ireland.[20] their capitals are london, edinburgh, cardiff and belfast, respectively. apart from england, the countries have their own devolved governments,[21] each with varying powers,[22][23] but such power is delegated by the parliament of the united kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution. the nearby isle of man, bailiwick of guernsey and bailiwick of jersey are not part of the uk, being crown dependencies with the british government responsible for defence and international representation.[24] the medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of wales by the kingdom of england, followed by the union between england and scotland in 1707 to form the kingdom of great britain, and the union in 1801 of great britain with the kingdom of ireland created the united kingdom of great britain and ireland. five-sixths of ireland seceded from the uk in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the united kingdom of great britain and northern ireland. the uk's current name was adopted in 1927 to reflect the change.[note 13] there are fourteen british overseas territories,[25] the remnants of the british empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed almost a quarter of the world's landmass and was the largest empire in history. british influence can be observed in the language, culture and political systems of many of its former colonies.[26][27][28][29][30]

    the united kingdom has the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal gross domestic product (gdp), and the ninth-largest by purchasing power parity (ppp). it has a high-income economy and a very high human development index rating, ranking 14th in the world. it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries.[31][32] the uk remains a great power, with considerable economic, cultural, military, scientific and political influence internationally.[33][34] it is a recognised nuclear weapons state and is sixth in military expenditure in the world.[35] it has been a permanent member of the united nations security council since its first session in 1946.

    the united kingdom is a leading member of the commonwealth of nations, the council of europe, the g7, the g20, nato, the organisation for economic co-operation and development (oecd), interpol and the world trade organization (wto). it was a member of the european union (eu) and its predecessor, the european economic community (eec) for 47 years, between 1 january 1973 and withdrawal on 31 january 2020.

  • etymology and terminology
  • history
  • geography
  • dependencies
  • politics
  • economy
  • demographics
  • culture
  • historiography
  • see also
  • notes
  • references
  • external links

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

A flag featuring both cross and saltire in red, white and blue
Europe-UK (orthographic projection).svg
Europe-UK.svg
Location of the United Kingdom (dark green)

in Europe (dark grey)

Capital
and largest city
London
51°30′N 0°7′W / 51°30′N 0°7′W / 51.500; -0.117
Official language
and national language
English
Regional and minority languages[note 3]
Ethnic groups
(2011)
Religion
Demonym(s)
Constituent countries
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary
constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Elizabeth II
Boris Johnson
LegislatureParliament
House of Lords
House of Commons
Formation
1535 and 1542
24 March 1603
1 May 1707
1 January 1801
5 December 1922
1 January 1973
31 January 2020
Area
• Total
242,495 km2 (93,628 sq mi)[8] (78th)
• Water (%)
1.34
Population
• 2020 estimate
Increase 67,886,004[9] (21st)
• 2011 census
63,182,178[10] (22nd)
• Density
270.7/km2 (701.1/sq mi) (50th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
Increase $3.131 trillion[11] (9th)
• Per capita
Increase $46,827[11] (26th)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
Decrease $2.744 trillion[11] (6th)
• Per capita
Decrease $41,030[11] (20th)
Gini (2017)Negative increase 33.1[12]
medium · 33rd
HDI (2018)Increase 0.920[13]
very high · 15th
CurrencyPound sterling[note 6] (GBP)
Time zoneUTC (Greenwich Mean Time, WET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+1 (British Summer Time, WEST)
[note 7]
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
yyyy-mm-dd (AD)
Mains electricity230 V–50 Hz
Driving sideleft[note 8]
Calling code+44[note 9]
ISO 3166 codeGB
Internet TLD.uk[note 10]

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK or U.K.)[14] or Britain,[note 11] is a sovereign country located off the north­western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north­eastern part of the island of Ireland, and many smaller islands.[15] Northern Ireland shares a land border with the Republic of Ireland. Otherwise, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the southwest, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world. The Irish Sea separates Great Britain and Ireland. The total area of the United Kingdom is 94,000 square miles (240,000 km2).

The United Kingdom is a unitary parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy.[note 12][16][17] The current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the world's longest-serving current head of state.[18] The United Kingdom's capital is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million.[19] Other major cities include Birmingham, Glasgow, Leeds, Liverpool, and Manchester.

The United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.[20] Their capitals are London, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments,[21] each with varying powers,[22][23] but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution. The nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation.[24] The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, and the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The UK's current name was adopted in 1927 to reflect the change.[note 13] There are fourteen British Overseas Territories,[25] the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed almost a quarter of the world's landmass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language, culture and political systems of many of its former colonies.[26][27][28][29][30]

The United Kingdom has the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal gross domestic product (GDP), and the ninth-largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). It has a high-income economy and a very high human development index rating, ranking 14th in the world. It was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries.[31][32] The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, cultural, military, scientific and political influence internationally.[33][34] It is a recognised nuclear weapons state and is sixth in military expenditure in the world.[35] It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.

The United Kingdom is a leading member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Interpol and the World Trade Organization (WTO). It was a member of the European Union (EU) and its predecessor, the European Economic Community (EEC) for 47 years, between 1 January 1973 and withdrawal on 31 January 2020.

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: Британиэшхуэ
Аҧсшәа: Британиа Ду
aragonés: Reino Unito
armãneashti: Britania Mari
arpetan: Reyômo-Uni
অসমীয়া: যুক্তৰাজ্য
asturianu: Reinu Xuníu
Avañe'ẽ: Tavetã Joaju
azərbaycanca: Birləşmiş Krallıq
Bân-lâm-gú: Liân-ha̍p Ông-kok
башҡортса: Бөйөк Британия
беларуская: Вялікабрытанія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Вялікабрытанія
Bikol Central: Reyno Unido
буряад: Ехэ Британи
català: Regne Unit
Чӑвашла: Аслă Британи
Chamoru: Reinu Unidu
Chi-Chewa: United Kingdom
chiShona: United Kingdom
davvisámegiella: Ovttastuvvan gonagasriika
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Régn Unî
español: Reino Unido
estremeñu: Reinu Uníu
فارسی: بریتانیا
Fiji Hindi: United Kingdom
føroyskt: Stóra Bretland
français: Royaume-Uni
furlan: Ream Unît
galego: Reino Unido
ГӀалгӀай: Великобритани
贛語: 英國
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: युनायटेड किंगडम
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Yîn-koet
한국어: 영국
Hausa: Birtaniya
hornjoserbsce: Zjednoćene kralestwo
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: তিলপারাজ্য
Bahasa Indonesia: Britania Raya
interlingua: Regno Unite
Interlingue: Reyatu Unit
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᑐᓗᐃᑦ ᓄᓈᑦ
íslenska: Bretland
italiano: Regno Unito
kalaallisut: Tuluit Nunaat
къарачай-малкъар: Уллу Британия
kaszëbsczi: Wiôlgô Britanijô
қазақша: Ұлыбритания
kernowek: Ruwvaneth Unys
Kinyarwanda: Ubwongereza
Kreyòl ayisyen: Wayòm Ini
kriyòl gwiyannen: Rwéyonm-Ini
кырык мары: Кого Британи
Ladino: Reyno Unido
لۊری شومالی: بریتانیا
latgaļu: Lelbrytaneja
Lëtzebuergesch: Vereenegt Kinnekräich
Ligure: Regno Unïo
Lingua Franca Nova: Rena Unida
Livvinkarjala: Yhtys Kuningaskundu
la .lojban.: ritygu'e
lumbaart: Regn Unid
Malti: Renju Unit
مازِرونی: بریتانیا
Bahasa Melayu: United Kingdom
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Ĭng-guók
Mirandés: Reino Ounido
монгол: Их Британи
Dorerin Naoero: Ingerand
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Matanitu Cokovata
Nedersaksies: Verienigd Keuninkriek
日本語: イギリス
Napulitano: Gran Vretagna
Nordfriisk: Feriind Kiningrik
Norfuk / Pitkern: Yunitid Kingdum
norsk nynorsk: Storbritannia
Nouormand: Rouoyaume Unni
occitan: Reialme Unit
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Birlashgan Qirollik
Pangasinan: Reino Unido
پنجابی: برطانیہ
Papiamentu: Reino Uni
Перем Коми: Ыджыт Бритму
ភាសាខ្មែរ: សហរាជាណាចក្រ
Piemontèis: Regn Unì
Tok Pisin: Yunaitet Kingdom
português: Reino Unido
qırımtatarca: Büyük Britaniya
reo tahiti: Paratāne
Ripoarisch: Jrußbritannie
rumantsch: Reginavel Unì
русиньскый: Велика Брітанія
саха тыла: Улуу Британия
Sakizaya: United kingdom
Gagana Samoa: Peretānia
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱥᱮᱞᱮᱫ ᱫᱤᱥᱟᱹᱢ
Sesotho sa Leboa: United Kingdom
sicilianu: Regnu Unitu
Simple English: United Kingdom
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Вєлика Британїꙗ
Sranantongo: Ingriskondre
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Ujedinjeno Kraljevstvo
Sunda: Britania
tarandíne: Regne Aunìte
татарча/tatarça: Бөекбритания
ၽႃႇသႃႇတႆး : မိူင်းဢင်းၵိတ်ႉ
тоҷикӣ: Бритониё
lea faka-Tonga: Pilitānia
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᎩᎵᏏᏲ
Tsetsêhestâhese: United Kingdom
Thuɔŋjäŋ: Amatnhom Mäcŋaknhom
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: United Kingdom
українська: Велика Британія
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: بۈيۈك بېرىتانىيە
Vahcuengh: Yinghgoz
vèneto: Regno Unìo
vepsän kel’: Sur' Britanii
Volapük: Regän Pebalöl
文言: 英國
Winaray: Reino Unido
吴语: 英国
Xitsonga: United Kingdom
粵語: 英國
žemaitėška: Jongtėnė Karalīstė
中文: 英国