Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic

Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (1936–1991)
  • Українська Радянська Соціалістична Республіка (Ukrainian)
  • Ukrayins'ka Radyans'ka Sotsialistichna Respublika
  • Украинская Советская Социалистическая Республика (Russian)
  • Ukrainskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika

Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic (1919–1936)

  • Українська Соціалістична Радянська Республіка (Ukrainian)
  • Ukrayins'ka Sotsialistichna Radyans'ka Respublika
  • Украинская Социалистическая Советская Республика (Russian)
  • Ukrainskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Sovetskaya Respublika

1941–1944: German and Romanian occupation
Motto: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! (Ukrainian)
"Proletari vsikh krayin, yednaitesia!" (transliteration)
"Workers of the world, unite!"
Anthem: Державний гімн Української Радянської Соціалістичної Республіки  (Ukrainian)
Derzhavnyy himn Ukrayins'koyi Radyans'koyi
Sotsialistychnoyi Respubliky

Location of the Ukrainian SSR within the Soviet Union from 1954
Location of the Ukrainian SSR within the Soviet Union from 1954
StatusPuppet state of Soviet Russia (1919–1922)
Union Republic of the USSR (1922–1990)
Union Republic with priority of Ukrainian legislation (1990–1991)
CapitalKharkiv (1919–1934)[1]
Kiev (1934–1991)[2]
Common languagesUkrainian (official since 1990)a[3]
Ukrainian · Russian[4]
GovernmentSoviet republic
First Secretary 
• 1918–1919
Emanuel Kviring (first)
• 1990–1991
Stanislav Hurenko (last)
Head of state 
• 1919–1938
Grigory Petrovsky (first)
• 1990–1991
Leonid Kravchuk (last)
Head of government 
• 1919–1923
Christian Rakovsky (first)
• 1988–1991
Vitold Fokin (last)
LegislatureSupreme Soviet[5]
Historical era20th century
• Declaration of the Ukrainian Soviet republic
10 March 1919
30 December 1922
15 November 1939
24 October 1945
• Priority of Ukrainian laws declared, Soviet laws partially abolished
10 July 1990
• Declaration of independence, Ukrainian SSR renamed to Ukraine
24 August 1991
1 December 1991
10 December 1991
• Dissolution of the Soviet Union (Ukraine's independence formally recognized)
26 December 1991
• Soviet government officially abolished (New constitution)
28 June 1996
1989 census603,700 km2 (233,100 sq mi)
CurrencySoviet ruble (karbovanets)
Calling code7 03/04/05/06
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Ukrainian People's Republic
Free Territory
Second Polish Republic
Kingdom of Romania
Reichskommissariat Ukraine
General Government
Polish People's Republic
Kingdom of Hungary
Crimean Oblast
Kingdom of Romania
Moldavian SSR
Reichskommissariat Ukraine
General Government
Polish People's Republic
Today part of Ukraine
 Russia (some parts disputed)
 Romania (Tătaru Mare Island)
  1. Law of Ukraine "About languages of the Ukrainian SSR"
Order of Lenin Order of Lenin
 Hero of the USSR Four Hero City awards
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The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (Ukrainian SSR or UkrSSR or UkSSR; Ukrainian: Украї́нська Радя́нська Соціалісти́чна Респу́бліка, Украї́нська РСР, УРСР ; Russian: Украи́нская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика, Украи́нская ССР , УССР ; see "Name" section below), also known as the Soviet Ukraine, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union from the Union's inception in 1922 to its breakup in 1991.[6] The republic was governed by the Communist Party of Ukraine as a unitary one-party socialist soviet republic.

The Ukrainian SSR was a founding member of the United Nations,[7] although it was legally represented by the All-Union state in its affairs with countries outside of the Soviet Union. Upon the Soviet Union's dissolution and perestroika, the Ukrainian SSR was transformed into the modern nation-state and renamed itself to Ukraine.[8]

Throughout its 72-year history, the republic's borders changed many times, with a significant portion of what is now Western Ukraine being annexed by Soviet forces in 1939 from the Republic of Poland, and the addition of Zakarpattia in 1946. From the start, the eastern city of Kharkiv served as the republic's capital. However, in 1934, the seat of government was subsequently moved to the city of Kiev, Ukraine's historic capital. Kiev remained the capital for the rest of the Ukrainian SSR's existence, and remained the capital of independent Ukraine after the breakup of the Soviet Union.

Geographically, the Ukrainian SSR was situated in Eastern Europe to the north of the Black Sea, bordered by the Soviet republics of Moldavia, Byelorussia, and the Russian SFSR. The Ukrainian SSR's border with Czechoslovakia formed the Soviet Union's western-most border point. According to the Soviet Census of 1989 the republic had a population of 51,706,746 inhabitants, which fell sharply after the breakup of the Soviet Union. On January 1, 2018, according to the State Statistics Committee of Ukraine the population of the country was 42,216,766 permanent residents.[9]

For most of its existence, it ranked second only to the Russian SFSR in population, economic and political power.


The name "Ukraine" (Latin: Vkraina) is a subject of debate. It is often perceived as being derived from the Slavic word "okraina", meaning "border land". It was first used to define part of the territory of Kievan Rus' (Ruthenia) in the 12th century, at which point Kiev was the capital of Rus' (Russian land). The name has been used in a variety of ways since the twelfth century. For example, Zaporozhian Cossacks called their Hetmanate "Ukraine", which can be translated as "Our country" or "our land".

Within the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the name carried unofficial status for eastern parts of bigger Kiev Voivodeship and was overshadowed by more common Little Poland.

Since the partition of Poland, the name has generally disappeared and was replaced with the Russian colonial name of Little Russia.

The idea of Ukraine as borderland crept in the English language at some point. Therefore, while Ukraine was part of the Soviet Union, Anglophones referred to the Ukrainian SSR as "The Ukraine".[10] However, since the fall of the Soviet Union, the officially recognized name is simply "Ukraine".[citation needed] The definite article may imply that it is a land or general geographic area with unidentified borders.[10]

Other Languages
latviešu: Ukrainas PSR
lietuvių: Ukrainos TSR
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Ukraina Sovet Sotsialistik Respublikasi
русиньскый: УССР
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Ukrajinska Sovjetska Socijalistička Republika
svenska: Ukrainska SSR
удмурт: Украин ССР