Ukraine

Ukraine
Україна (Ukrainian)
Ukrayina
Anthem: "Shche ne vmerly Ukrainy ni slava ni volya"
"The glory and the will of Ukraine has not yet died" (also – "Ukraine has not yet perished)"
Europe-Ukraine (disputed territory).svg
Europe-Ukraine (orthographic projection; disputed territory).svg
Capital
and largest city
Kiev
50°27′N 30°30′E / 50°27′N 30°30′E / 50.450; 30.500
Official languagesUkrainian
Recognised regional languagesRomanian, Belarusian, Bulgarian, Crimean Tatar, Gagauz, Greek, Hebrew, Hungarian, Polish, Russian, Slovak, Yiddish[1][2]
Ethnic groups (2001[3])
DemonymUkrainian
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential constitutional republic
Petro Poroshenko
Volodymyr Groysman
Andriy Parubiy
LegislatureVerkhovna Rada
Formation
882
1199
17 August 1649
7 November 1917
1 November 1918
10 March 1919
8 October 1938
15 November 1939
30 June 1941
24 August 1991a
28 June 1996
Area
• Total
603,628 km2 (233,062 sq mi) (45th)
• Water (%)
7
Population
• 2017 estimate

42,418,235 Decrease

[4] (32nd)
• 2001 census
48,457,102[3]
• Density
73.8/km2 (191.1/sq mi) (115th)
GDP (PPP)2017 estimate
• Total
$366 billion[5] (50th)
• Per capita
$8,656[5] (114th)
GDP (nominal)2017 estimate
• Total
$104 billion[5] (62nd)
• Per capita
$2,459[5] (132nd)
Gini (2015)Negative increase 25.5[6]
low · 18th
HDI (2015)Decrease 0.743[7]
high · 84th
CurrencyUkrainian hryvnia (UAH)
Time zoneEET (UTC+2[8])
• Summer (DST)
EEST (UTC+3)
Drives on theright
Calling code+380
ISO 3166 codeUA
Internet TLD
  1. An independence referendum was held on 1 December, after which Ukrainian independence was finalized on 26 December.

Ukraine (Ukrainian: Україна, translit. Ukrayina; Ukrainian pronunciation: [ukrɑˈjinɑ]), sometimes called the Ukraine,[9] is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe,[10] bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively. Ukraine is currently in a territorial dispute with Russia over the Crimean Peninsula, which Russia annexed in 2014[11] and now administers as two federal subjects of the Russian federation,[12] but which Ukraine and most of the international community continue to recognise as Ukrainian. Including Crimea, Ukraine has an area of 603,628 km2 (233,062 sq mi),[13] making it the largest country entirely within Europe and the 46th largest country in the world. Excluding Crimea, Ukraine has a population of about 42.5 million, making it the 32nd most populous country in the world.[14]

The territory of modern Ukraine has been inhabited since 32,000 BC. During the Middle Ages, the area was a key centre of East Slavic culture, with the powerful state of Kievan Rus' forming the basis of Ukrainian identity. Following its fragmentation in the 13th century, the territory was contested, ruled and divided by a variety of powers, including Lithuania, Poland, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Russia. A Cossack republic emerged and prospered during the 17th and 18th centuries, but its territory was eventually split between Poland and the Russian Empire, and finally merged fully into the Russian-dominated Soviet Union in the late 1940s.

During the 20th century three periods of independence occurred. The first of these periods occurred briefly during and immediately after the German occupation near the end of World War I and the second occurred, also briefly, and also during German occupation, during World War II. However, both of these first two earlier periods would eventually see Ukraine's territories consolidated back into a constituent republic within the Soviet Union. The third period of independence began in 1991, when Ukraine gained its independence from the Soviet Union in the aftermath of its dissolution at the end of the Cold War. Ukraine has maintained its independence as a sovereign state ever since. Before its independence, Ukraine was typically referred to in English as "The Ukraine", but sources since then have moved to drop "the" from the name of Ukraine in all uses.[15]

Following its independence, Ukraine declared itself a neutral state.[16] Nonetheless it formed a limited military partnership with the Russian Federation and other CIS countries and a partnership with NATO in 1994. In the 2000s, the government began leaning towards NATO, and a deeper cooperation with the alliance was set by the NATO-Ukraine Action Plan signed in 2002. It was later agreed that the question of joining NATO should be answered by a national referendum at some point in the future.[17] Former President Viktor Yanukovych considered the current level of co-operation between Ukraine and NATO sufficient,[18] and was against Ukraine joining NATO.[19] In 2013, after the government of President Yanukovych had decided to suspend the Ukraine-European Union Association Agreement and seek closer economic ties with Russia, a several-months-long wave of demonstrations and protests known as the Euromaidan began, which later escalated into the 2014 Ukrainian revolution that led to the overthrow of President Yanukovych and his cabinet and the establishment of a new government. These events formed the background for the annexation of Crimea by Russia in March 2014, and the War in Donbass in April 2014. On 1 January 2016, Ukraine applied the economic part of the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area with the European Union.[20]

Ukraine has long been a global breadbasket because of its extensive, fertile farmlands and is one of the world's largest grain exporters.[21][22] The diversified economy of Ukraine includes a large heavy industry sector, particularly in aerospace and industrial equipment.

Ukraine is a unitary republic under a semi-presidential system with separate powers: legislative, executive and judicial branches. Its capital and largest city is Kiev. Taking into account reserves and paramilitary personnel,[23] Ukraine maintains the second-largest military in Europe after that of Russia. The country is home to 42.5 million people (excluding Crimea),[14] 77.8 percent of whom are Ukrainians "by ethnicity", followed by a sizeable minority of Russians (17.3 percent) as well as Georgians, Romanians/Moldovans, Belarusians, Crimean Tatars, Bulgarians and Hungarians. Ukrainian is the official language and its alphabet is Cyrillic. The dominant religions in the country are Eastern Orthodoxy and Greek Catholicism, which have strongly influenced Ukrainian architecture, literature and music. It is a member of the United Nations since its founding, the Council of Europe, OSCE, GUAM, and one of the founding states of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).

Etymology

There are different hypotheses as to the etymology of the name Ukraine. According to the older and most widespread hypothesis, it means "borderland",[24] while more recently some linguistic studies claim a different meaning: "homeland" or "region, country".[25]

"The Ukraine" was once the usual form in English,[26] but since the Declaration of Independence of Ukraine, "the Ukraine" has become much less common in the English-speaking world, and style-guides largely recommend not using the definite article.[15][27] "The Ukraine" now implies disregard for the country's sovereignty, according to U.S. ambassador William Taylor.[28] The Ukrainian position is that the usage of "'The Ukraine' is incorrect both grammatically and politically."[9]

Other Languages
Acèh: Ukraina
Адыгэбзэ: Украинэ
адыгабзэ: Украинэ
Afrikaans: Oekraïne
Akan: Ukraine
Alemannisch: Ukraine
አማርኛ: ዩክሬን
Ænglisc: Ucrægna
Аҧсшәа: Украина
العربية: أوكرانيا
aragonés: Ucraína
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܐܘܩܪܐܝܢܐ
armãneashti: Ucraina
arpetan: Ucrayena
asturianu: Ucraína
Avañe'ẽ: Ukyáña
авар: Украина
Aymar aru: Ukraniya
azərbaycanca: Ukrayna
تۆرکجه: اوکراین
বাংলা: ইউক্রেন
Bahasa Banjar: Ukraina
Bân-lâm-gú: Ukraina
башҡортса: Украина
беларуская: Украіна
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Украіна
भोजपुरी: यूक्रेन
Bikol Central: Ukranya
Bislama: Ukraine
български: Украйна
Boarisch: Ukraine
བོད་ཡིག: ཨུཀ་རཡི་ནི།
bosanski: Ukrajina
brezhoneg: Ukraina
буряад: Украина
català: Ucraïna
Чӑвашла: Украина
Cebuano: Ukranya
čeština: Ukrajina
Chamoru: Ukrania
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Ucrania
chiShona: Ukraine
chiTumbuka: Ukraine
corsu: Ucraina
Cymraeg: Yr Wcráin
dansk: Ukraine
davvisámegiella: Ukraina
Deutsch: Ukraine
ދިވެހިބަސް: ޔުކްރެއިން
dolnoserbski: Ukraina
eesti: Ukraina
Ελληνικά: Ουκρανία
эрзянь: Украина
español: Ucrania
Esperanto: Ukrainio
estremeñu: Ucrania
euskara: Ukraina
eʋegbe: Ukraine
فارسی: اوکراین
Fiji Hindi: Ukraine
føroyskt: Ukraina
français: Ukraine
Frysk: Oekraïne
Fulfulde: Ukrayiina
furlan: Ucraine
Gaeilge: An Úcráin
Gaelg: Yn Ookraan
Gagauz: Ukrayna
Gàidhlig: An Ucràin
galego: Ucraína
贛語: 烏克蘭
ગુજરાતી: યુક્રેન
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐌿𐌺𐍂𐌰𐌾𐌽𐌰
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: युक्रेन
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Ukraina
한국어: 우크라이나
Hausa: Ukraniya
Hawaiʻi: ʻUkelena
Հայերեն: Ուկրաինա
हिन्दी: युक्रेन
hornjoserbsce: Ukraina
hrvatski: Ukrajina
Ido: Ukraina
Igbo: Yukrain
Ilokano: Ukrania
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: ইউক্রেন
Bahasa Indonesia: Ukraina
interlingua: Ukraina
Interlingue: Ucraina
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᑯᑯᓯ ᓄᓇ
Iñupiak: Ukraine
Ирон: Украинæ
isiXhosa: Ukraine
isiZulu: IYukreyini
íslenska: Úkraína
italiano: Ucraina
עברית: אוקראינה
Basa Jawa: Ukraina
kalaallisut: Ukraine
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಯುಕ್ರೇನ್
Kapampangan: Ukranya
къарачай-малкъар: Украина
ქართული: უკრაინა
kaszëbsczi: Ùkrajina
қазақша: Украина
kernowek: Ukrayn
Kinyarwanda: Ikerene
Kiswahili: Ukraine
коми: Украина
Kongo: Uklenyi
Kreyòl ayisyen: Ikrèn
kurdî: Ûkrayna
Кыргызча: Украйна
кырык мары: Украина
Ladino: Ukraina
лезги: Украина
لۊری شومالی: اۈکراین
latgaļu: Ukraina
Latina: Ucraina
latviešu: Ukraina
Lëtzebuergesch: Ukrain
lietuvių: Ukraina
Ligure: Ucrainn-a
Limburgs: Oekraïne
lingála: Ukraine
Livvinkarjala: Ukrainu
la .lojban.: vurgu'e
lumbaart: Ücraina
magyar: Ukrajna
मैथिली: यूक्रेन
македонски: Украина
Malagasy: Okraina
മലയാളം: ഉക്രൈൻ
Malti: Ukrajna
Māori: Ūkareinga
मराठी: युक्रेन
მარგალური: უკრაინა
مازِرونی: اکراین
Bahasa Melayu: Ukraine
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Ukraine
Mirandés: Oucránia
мокшень: Украин
монгол: Украин
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ယူကရိန်းနိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Ucrania
Dorerin Naoero: Ukraine
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Ukraine
Nederlands: Oekraïne
Nedersaksies: Oekraïne
नेपाली: युक्रेन
नेपाल भाषा: युक्रेन
日本語: ウクライナ
Napulitano: Ucraina
нохчийн: Украина
Nordfriisk: Ukraine
Norfuk / Pitkern: Yukrayn
norsk: Ukraina
norsk nynorsk: Ukraina
Nouormand: Ukraîne
Novial: Ukraina
occitan: Ucraïna
олык марий: Украина
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ୟୁକ୍ରେନ
Oromoo: Yuukireen
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Ukraina
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਯੂਕਰੇਨ
Pälzisch: Ukraine
Pangasinan: Ukraniya
پنجابی: یوکرین
Papiamentu: Ukrania
پښتو: اوکراین
Patois: Yuukrien
Перем Коми: Украина
ភាសាខ្មែរ: អ៊ុយក្រែន
Picard: Oucrinne
Piemontèis: Ucrain-a
Tok Pisin: Yukren
Plattdüütsch: Ukraine
polski: Ukraina
Ποντιακά: Ουκρανία
português: Ucrânia
Qaraqalpaqsha: Ukraina
qırımtatarca: Ukraina
română: Ucraina
Romani: Ukraina
rumantsch: Ucraina
Runa Simi: Ukranya
русиньскый: Україна
русский: Украина
саха тыла: Украина
Gagana Samoa: Iukureini
sardu: Ucraina
Scots: Ukraine
Seeltersk: Ukraine
Sesotho: Ukraine
shqip: Ukraina
sicilianu: Ucraina
සිංහල: යුක්රේනය
Simple English: Ukraine
سنڌي: يوڪرين
SiSwati: IYukhureni
slovenčina: Ukrajina
slovenščina: Ukrajina
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Оукраина
ślůnski: Ukrajina
Soomaaliga: Yukrayn
کوردی: ئوکراینا
Sranantongo: Ukrainakondre
српски / srpski: Украјина
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Ukrajina
Basa Sunda: Ukraina
suomi: Ukraina
svenska: Ukraina
Tagalog: Ukraine
தமிழ்: உக்ரைன்
Taqbaylit: Ukrayin
tarandíne: Ucraine
татарча/tatarça: Украина
తెలుగు: ఉక్రెయిన్
tetun: Ukránia
ትግርኛ: ዩክረይን
тоҷикӣ: Укроин
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᏳᎧᎴᏂ
Tsetsêhestâhese: Ukraine
Tshivenda: Ukraine
Türkçe: Ukrayna
Türkmençe: Ukraina
Twi: Ukraine
тыва дыл: Украина
удмурт: Украина
українська: Україна
اردو: یوکرین
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ئۇكرائىنا
vèneto: Ucraina
vepsän kel’: Ukrain
Tiếng Việt: Ukraina
Volapük: Lukrayän
Võro: Ukraina
walon: Oucrinne
文言: 烏克蘭
West-Vlams: Oekraïne
Winaray: Ukranya
Wolof: Ukreen
吴语: 乌克兰
Xitsonga: Ukraine
ייִדיש: אוקראינע
Yorùbá: Ukréìn
粵語: 烏克蘭
Zazaki: Ukrayna
Zeêuws: Oekraïne
žemaitėška: Okraėna
中文: 乌克兰
डोटेली: युक्रेन
ГӀалгӀай: Украина
Kabɩyɛ: Ukurɛnɩ
Lingua Franca Nova: Ucraina