Turkish language

Turkish
Türkçe
Pronunciation [ˈtyɾct͡ʃɛ]
Native to

Turkey (official), Northern Cyprus (official), Cyprus (official), Bulgaria, Macedonia, Greece, Iraq, Syria

Azerbaijan, Kosovo, Romania, Iraq, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Syria
Region Anatolia, Balkans, Cyprus, Mesopotamia, Levant, Transcaucasia
Ethnicity Turkish
Native speakers
88 million ( L1 + L2) (2017) [1]
Turkic
Early forms
Standard forms
Ottoman Turkish (defunct)
Dialects
Latin ( Turkish alphabet)
Turkish Braille
Official status
Official language in
  Turkey
  Northern Cyprus
  Cyprus
Recognised minority
language in
Regulated by Turkish Language Association
Language codes
ISO 639-1 tr
ISO 639-2 tur
ISO 639-3 tur
Glottolog nucl1301 [2]
Linguasphere part of 44-AAB-a
Map of Turkish Language.png
  Countries where Turkish is an official language
  Countries where it is recognized as a minority language
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Turkish ( About this sound  Türkçe ), also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, [3] is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia). Outside of Turkey, significant smaller groups of speakers exist in Germany, Bulgaria, Macedonia, [4] Northern Cyprus, [5] Greece, [6] the Caucasus, and other parts of Europe and Central Asia. Cyprus has requested that the European Union add Turkish as an official EU language, even though Turkey is not a member state. [7]

To the west, the influence of Ottoman Turkish—the variety of the Turkish language that was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire—spread as the Ottoman Empire expanded. In 1928, as one of Atatürk's Reforms in the early years of the Republic of Turkey, the Ottoman Turkish alphabet was replaced with a Latin alphabet.

The distinctive characteristics of Turkish are vowel harmony and extensive agglutination. The basic word order of Turkish is subject–object–verb. Turkish has no noun classes or grammatical gender. Turkish has a strong T–V distinction and usage of honorifics. Turkish uses second-person pronouns that distinguish varying levels of politeness, social distance, age, courtesy or familiarity toward the addressee. The plural second-person pronoun and verb forms are used referring to a single person out of respect.

Classification

Old Turkic inscription with the Old Turkic alphabet (c. 8th century). Kyzyl, Russia

About 40% of all speakers of Turkic languages are native Turkish speakers. [8]The characteristic features of Turkish, such as vowel harmony, agglutination, and lack of grammatical gender, are universal within the Turkic family. The Turkic family comprises some 30 living languages spoken across Eastern Europe, Central Asia, and Siberia.

Turkish is a member of the Oghuz group of languages, a subgroup of the Turkic language family. There is a high degree of mutual intelligibility between Turkish and the other Oghuz Turkic languages, including Azerbaijani, Turkmen, Qashqai, Gagauz, and Balkan Gagauz Turkish. [9]

The Turkic languages were grouped into the now discredited Altaic language group.

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: Тыркубзэ
адыгабзэ: Тыркубзэ
Afrikaans: Turks
Alemannisch: Türkische Sprache
አማርኛ: ቱርክኛ
العربية: لغة تركية
aragonés: Idioma turco
asturianu: Turcu
Avañe'ẽ: Tuykiañe'ẽ
azərbaycanca: Türk dili
Bân-lâm-gú: Thó͘-ní-kî-gí
башҡортса: Төрөк теле
беларуская: Турэцкая мова
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Турэцкая мова
български: Турски език
bosanski: Turski jezik
brezhoneg: Turkeg
буряад: Түрэг хэлэн
català: Turc
Чӑвашла: Турккă чĕлхи
čeština: Turečtina
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Turco
Cymraeg: Tyrceg
Diné bizaad: Tʼóok bizaad
dolnoserbski: Turkojšćina
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Turc
español: Idioma turco
Esperanto: Turka lingvo
euskara: Turkiera
Fiji Hindi: Turkish bhasa
føroyskt: Turkiskt mál
français: Turc
Frysk: Turksk
Gaeilge: An Tuircis
Gaelg: Turkish
Gagauz: Türk dili
Gàidhlig: Turcais
galego: Lingua turca
ગુજરાતી: તુર્કિશ ભાષા
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: तुर्की भास
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Thú-ngí-khì-ngî
한국어: 터키어
Հայերեն: Թուրքերեն
hornjoserbsce: Turkowšćina
hrvatski: Turski jezik
Bahasa Indonesia: Bahasa Turki
íslenska: Tyrkneska
italiano: Lingua turca
עברית: טורקית
Basa Jawa: Basa Turki
kalaallisut: Tyrkiskisut
ქართული: თურქული ენა
kaszëbsczi: Tërecczi jãzëk
қазақша: Түрік тілі
kernowek: Turkek
Kinyarwanda: Igiturukiya
Kiswahili: Kituruki
Кыргызча: Түрк тили
кырык мары: Турок йӹлмӹ
лезги: Туьрк чIал
latviešu: Turku valoda
Lëtzebuergesch: Tierkesch
lietuvių: Turkų kalba
Limburgs: Turks
lumbaart: Lengua türca
македонски: Турски јазик
Malagasy: Fiteny tiorka
Māori: Reo Tākei
მარგალური: თურქული ნინა
مصرى: توركى
Bahasa Melayu: Bahasa Turki
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Tū-ī-gì-ngṳ̄
мокшень: Туркань кяль
монгол: Турк хэл
Dorerin Naoero: Dorerit Terki
Nederlands: Turks
日本語: トルコ語
нохчийн: Туркойн мотт
norsk: Tyrkisk
norsk nynorsk: Tyrkisk
occitan: Turc
олык марий: Турко йылме
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Turk tili
پنجابی: ترک بولی
Papiamentu: Turko
Перем Коми: Тюрк кыв
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ភាសាទួរគី
Piemontèis: Lenga turca
português: Língua turca
Qaraqalpaqsha: Tu'rk tili
qırımtatarca: Türk tili
română: Limba turcă
rumantsch: Lingua tirca
Runa Simi: Turku simi
русиньскый: Турецькый язык
саха тыла: Туурак тыла
sámegiella: Durkkagiella
sicilianu: Lingua turca
Simple English: Turkish language
slovenčina: Turečtina
slovenščina: Turščina
ślůnski: Turecko godka
Soomaaliga: Af-Turki
српски / srpski: Турски језик
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Turski jezik
Basa Sunda: Basa Turki
svenska: Turkiska
Tagalog: Wikang Turko
татарча/tatarça: Төрек теле
Türkçe: Türkçe
Türkmençe: Türk dili
удмурт: Турок кыл
українська: Турецька мова
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: تۈرك تىلى
vèneto: Lengua turca
vepsän kel’: Turkan kel'
Tiếng Việt: Tiếng Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ
Volapük: Türkänapük
Winaray: Tinurkiya
ייִדיש: טערקיש
Yorùbá: Èdè Túrkì
粵語: 土耳其話
Zazaki: Tırki
žemaitėška: Torku kalba
中文: 土耳其语