Turkey

Republic of Turkey
Türkiye Cumhuriyeti  (Turkish)
Flag of Turkey
Anthem: 
1965
Location of Turkey
CapitalAnkara
39°55′N 32°50′E / 39°55′N 32°50′E / 39.917; 32.833
Largest cityIstanbul
41°1′N 28°57′E / 41°1′N 28°57′E / 41.017; 28.950
Official languagesTurkish
Spoken languages[1]
Ethnic groups
Demonym
GovernmentUnitary presidential constitutional republic
• President
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
Fuat Oktay
Binali Yıldırım
LegislatureGrand National Assembly
Establishment
19 May 1919
24 July 1923
29 October 1923
Area
• Total
783,356 km2 (302,455 sq mi) (36th)
• Water (%)
1.3
Population
• 2017 estimate
Increase 80,810,525[2] (16th)
• Density
105[3]/km2 (271.9/sq mi) (107th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$2.314 trillion[4] (13th)
• Per capita
$28,270[4] (45th)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$714 billion[4] (17th)
• Per capita
$8,716[4] (60th)
Gini (2013)Positive decrease 40.0[5]
medium · 56th
HDI (2017)Increase 0.791[6]
high · 64th
CurrencyTurkish lira (₺) (TRY)
Time zoneUTC+3 (FET)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy (AD)
Driving sideright
Calling code+90
ISO 3166 codeTR
Internet TLD.tr

Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye [ˈtyɾcije]), officially the Republic of Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti [ˈtyɾcije d͡ʒumˈhuɾijeti] (About this sound listen)), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia and Middle East, located mainly in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe. Turkey is bordered by eight countries: Greece and Bulgaria to the northwest; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south. The country is encircled by seas on three sides, with the Aegean Sea to the west, the Black Sea to the north, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles, which together form the Turkish Straits, divide Thrace and Anatolia and separate Europe from Asia.[7] Ankara is the capital while Istanbul is the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre, classified as a leading global city.[8]

Approximately 70–80% of the country's citizens identify themselves as ethnic Turks.[9][10] Kurds are the largest minority at about 20% of the population; other ethnic minorities include Circassians, Albanians, Arabs, Bosniaks, and Laz people.[10][11][12][13][14] The official language is Turkish, which is the most widely spoken Turkic language in the world.[15] Minority languages spoken today in Turkey include Kurmanji, Bosnian, Arabic, Zaza, Kabardian, and several others.[1]

At various points in its history, the region has been inhabited by diverse civilizations including the Assyrians, Greeks, Thracians, Phrygians, Urartians, and Armenians.[16][17][18] Hellenization started during the era of Alexander the Great and continued into the Byzantine era.[17][19] The Seljuk Turks began migrating into the area in the 11th century, and their victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 symbolizes the start and foundation of Turkey.[20] The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, when it disintegrated into small Turkish principalities.[21] Beginning in the late 13th-century, the Ottomans started uniting these Turkish principalities. After Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman expansion continued under Selim I. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent the Ottoman Empire encompassed much of Southeast Europe, West Asia and North Africa.[16][22]

In 1913, a coup d'état effectively put the country under the control of the Three Pashas. During World War I, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian, Assyrian and Pontic Greek subjects.[I][25] Following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that formerly comprised the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states.[26] The Turkish War of Independence, initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues against occupying Allies, resulted in the abolition of monarchy in 1922 and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, with Atatürk as its first president.[27] Atatürk enacted numerous reforms, many of which incorporated various aspects of Western thought, philosophy, and customs into the new form of Turkish government.[28]

Turkey is a charter member of the UN, an early member of NATO, the IMF and the World Bank, and a founding member of the OECD, OSCE, BSEC, OIC and G-20. After becoming one of the first members of the Council of Europe in 1949, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started accession negotiations with the European Union in 2005 which have been effectively stopped by the EU in 2017 due to "Turkey’s path toward autocratic rule".[29] Turkey's economy and diplomatic initiatives led to its recognition as a regional power while its location has given it geopolitical and strategic importance throughout history.[30][31] Turkey is a secular, unitary, formerly parliamentary republic which adopted a presidential system with a referendum in 2017; the new system came into effect with the presidential election in 2018. Turkey's current administration headed by president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan of the AKP has enacted measures to increase the influence of Islam, reversed and undermined Kemalist policies, and has reversed earlier reforms such as freedom of the press.[32][33]

Etymology

The name of Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye) means "land of the Turks". Middle English usage of Turkye is attested to in an early work by Chaucer called The Book of the Duchess (c. 1369). The phrase land of Torke is used in the 15th-century Digby Mysteries. Later usages can be found in the Dunbar poems, the 16th century Manipulus Vocabulorum ("Turkie, Tartaria") and Francis Bacon's Sylva Sylvarum (Turky). The modern spelling "Turkey" dates back to at least 1719.[34]

Other Languages
Acèh: Turuki
Адыгэбзэ: Тыркуей
адыгабзэ: Тыркуе
Afrikaans: Turkye
Akan: Turki
Alemannisch: Türkei
አማርኛ: ቱርክ
Ænglisc: Tyrcland
Аҧсшәа: Ҭырқәтәыла
العربية: تركيا
aragonés: Turquía
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܛܘܪܩܝܐ
armãneashti: Turchia
arpetan: Turquie
অসমীয়া: তুৰস্ক
asturianu: Turquía
Avañe'ẽ: Tuykia
авар: Туркия
Aymar aru: Turkiya
azərbaycanca: Türkiyə
تۆرکجه: تورکیه
bamanankan: Türkiye
বাংলা: তুরস্ক
Bahasa Banjar: Turki
Bân-lâm-gú: Thó͘-ní-kî
Basa Banyumasan: Turki
башҡортса: Төркиә
беларуская: Турцыя
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Турэччына
भोजपुरी: तुर्की
Bikol Central: Turkiya
Bislama: Teki
български: Турция
Boarisch: Tiakei
བོད་ཡིག: ཏུར་ཀི།
bosanski: Turska
brezhoneg: Turkia
буряад: Түрэг Улас
català: Turquia
Чӑвашла: Турци
Cebuano: Turkiya
čeština: Turecko
Chamoru: Turkey
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Turquía
Chi-Chewa: Turkey
chiShona: Turkey
chiTumbuka: Turkey
corsu: Turchia
Cymraeg: Twrci
dansk: Tyrkiet
davvisámegiella: Durka
Deitsch: Turkie
Deutsch: Türkei
ދިވެހިބަސް: ތުރުކީވިލާތް
dolnoserbski: Turkojska
eesti: Türgi
Ελληνικά: Τουρκία
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Turchî
español: Turquía
Esperanto: Turkio
estremeñu: Turquia
euskara: Turkia
eʋegbe: Turkey
فارسی: ترکیه
Fiji Hindi: Turkey
føroyskt: Turkaland
français: Turquie
Frysk: Turkije
Fulfulde: Türkiye
furlan: Turchie
Gaeilge: An Tuirc
Gaelg: Yn Turkee
Gagauz: Türkiye
Gàidhlig: An Tuirc
galego: Turquía
贛語: 土耳其
Gĩkũyũ: Takĩ
ગુજરાતી: તુર્કસ્તાન
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐍄𐍅𐍂𐌺𐌾𐌰
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: तुर्की
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Thú-ngí-khì
한국어: 터키
Hausa: Turkiyya
Hawaiʻi: Tureke
հայերեն: Թուրքիա
हिन्दी: तुर्की
hornjoserbsce: Turkowska
hrvatski: Turska
Ido: Turkia
Igbo: Turkéy
Ilokano: Turkia
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: তুরস্ক
Bahasa Indonesia: Turki
interlingua: Turchia
Interlingue: Turcia
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᑑᕐᑭ
Iñupiak: Turkey
Ирон: Турк
isiXhosa: ITurkiya
isiZulu: ITheki
íslenska: Tyrkland
italiano: Turchia
עברית: טורקיה
Basa Jawa: Turki
kalaallisut: Tyrkia
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಟರ್ಕಿ
Kapampangan: Turkiya
къарачай-малкъар: Тюрк
ქართული: თურქეთი
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: ترکی
kaszëbsczi: Tëreckô
қазақша: Түркия
kernowek: Turki
Kinyarwanda: Turukiya
Kirundi: Turukiya
Kiswahili: Uturuki
коми: Турция
Kongo: Turki
Kreyòl ayisyen: Tiki
kurdî: Tirkiye
Кыргызча: Түркия
кырык мары: Турци
Ladino: Turkia
лакку: Туркия
лезги: Турция
لۊری شومالی: تورکیٱ
latgaļu: Turceja
Latina: Turcia
latviešu: Turcija
Lëtzebuergesch: Tierkei
lietuvių: Turkija
Ligure: Turchia
Limburgs: Turkije
lingála: Turkí
Livvinkarjala: Turtsii
la .lojban.: turk
Luganda: Buturuki
lumbaart: Türchia
मैथिली: टर्की
македонски: Турција
Malagasy: Torkia
മലയാളം: തുർക്കി
Malti: Turkija
Māori: Tākei
მარგალური: თურქეთი
مصرى: توركيا
مازِرونی: ترکیه
Bahasa Melayu: Turki
Baso Minangkabau: Turki
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Tū-ī-gì
Mirandés: Turquie
мокшень: Туркамастор
монгол: Турк
မြန်မာဘာသာ: တူရကီနိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Turquia
Dorerin Naoero: Terki
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Turkey
Nederlands: Turkije
Nedersaksies: Turkije
Nēhiyawēwin / ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣ: ᑐᕒᑭ
नेपाली: टर्की
नेपाल भाषा: टर्की
日本語: トルコ
Napulitano: Turchia
нохчийн: Турци
Nordfriisk: Türkei
Norfuk / Pitkern: Turkii
norsk: Tyrkia
norsk nynorsk: Tyrkia
Nouormand: Turtchie
Novial: Turkia
occitan: Turquia
олык марий: Турций
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ତୁର୍କୀ
Oromoo: Tarkii
Oshiwambo: Turkey
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Turkiya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਤੁਰਕੀ
Pälzisch: Türkei
Pangasinan: Turkiyo
پنجابی: ترکی
Papiamentu: Turkia
پښتو: تورکيه
Patois: Toerki
Перем Коми: Тюркия
Picard: Turkie
Piemontèis: Turchìa
Tok Pisin: Teki
Plattdüütsch: Törkie
polski: Turcja
Ποντιακά: Τουρκία
português: Turquia
Qaraqalpaqsha: Tu'rkiya
qırımtatarca: Türkiye
reo tahiti: Turiti
română: Turcia
Romani: Turkiya
rumantsch: Tirchia
Runa Simi: Turkiya
русиньскый: Турція
русский: Турция
саха тыла: Түркийэ
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱛᱩᱨᱠᱤ
Gagana Samoa: Take
संस्कृतम्: तुर्की
Sängö: Turukïi
sardu: Turkia
Scots: Turkey
Seeltersk: Turkäi
Sesotho: Türkiye
Sesotho sa Leboa: Turkey
Setswana: Turkey
shqip: Turqia
sicilianu: Turchìa
සිංහල: තුර්කිය
Simple English: Turkey
سنڌي: ترڪي
SiSwati: IThekhi
slovenčina: Turecko
slovenščina: Turčija
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Тѷрци
ślůnski: Turcyjo
Soomaaliga: Turkiga
کوردی: تورکیا
Sranantongo: Turkiyakondre
српски / srpski: Турска
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Turska
Basa Sunda: Turki
suomi: Turkki
svenska: Turkiet
Tagalog: Turkiya
தமிழ்: துருக்கி
Taqbaylit: Tturk
tarandíne: Turchie
татарча/tatarça: Төркия
తెలుగు: టర్కీ
tetun: Turkia
ትግርኛ: የቱርክ ዶሮ
тоҷикӣ: Туркия
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᎬᏃ
Tsetsêhestâhese: Turkey
Tshivenda: Turkey
ತುಳು: ಟರ್ಕಿ
Türkçe: Türkiye
Türkmençe: Türkiýe
Twi: Turkey
тыва дыл: Турция
удмурт: Турция
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Turki
українська: Туреччина
اردو: ترکی
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: تۈركىيە جۇمھۇرىيىتى
Vahcuengh: Dujwjgiz
vèneto: Turchia
vepsän kel’: Turkanma
Tiếng Việt: Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ
Volapük: Türkän
Võro: Türgü
walon: Tourkeye
文言: 土耳其
West-Vlams: Turkeye
Winaray: Turkeya
Wolof: Tirki
吴语: 土耳其
Xitsonga: Turkey
ייִדיש: טערקיי
Yorùbá: Turkey
粵語: 土耳其
Zazaki: Tırkiya
Zeêuws: Turkije
žemaitėška: Torkėjė
中文: 土耳其
डोटेली: टर्की
ГӀалгӀай: Туркий мохк
Kabɩyɛ: Tuurkii
Lingua Franca Nova: Turcia