Tunisia

Republic of Tunisia

الجمهورية التونسية (Arabic)
al-Jumhūrīyah at-Tūnisīyah
République tunisienne  (French)
Motto: حرية، كرامة، عدالة، نظام
"Ḥurrīyah, Karāma, 'Adālah, Niẓām"
"freedom, dignity, justice, and order"[1]
Anthem: حماة الحمى
"Humat al-Hima"
(English: "Defenders of the Homeland")
Location of Tunisia (dark blue) in Africa (light blue)
Location of Tunisia (dark blue)

in Africa (light blue)

Location of Tunisia
Capital
and largest city
Tunis
36°49′N 10°11′E / 36°49′N 10°11′E / 36.817; 10.183
Official languagesArabic[2]
Spoken languages
Ethnic groups
Arab-Berber 98%, European 1%, Jewish and other 1%[8]
Religion
Islam[9]
Demonym(s)Tunisian
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential republic[10][11]
• President
Mohamed Ennaceur (acting)
Youssef Chahed
LegislatureAssembly of the Representatives of the People
Formation
• Husainid Dynasty inaugurated
15 July 1705
• Independence from France
20 March 1956
25 July 1957
14 January 2011
Area
• Total
163,610 km2 (63,170 sq mi) (91st)
• Water (%)
5.0
Population
• 2017 estimate
11,434,994[12] (79th)
• Density
63/km2 (163.2/sq mi) (133rd)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$151.566 billion[13]
• Per capita
$12,862[13]
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$42.277 billion[13]
• Per capita
$3,587[13]
Gini (2017)35.8[14]
medium
HDI (2018)Increase 0.735[15]
high · 95th
CurrencyTunisian dinar (TND)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
Driving sideright
Calling code+216
ISO 3166 codeTN
Internet TLD

Tunisia,[a] officially the Republic of Tunisia,[18][b] is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa, covering 163,610 square kilometres (63,170 square miles). Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was 11.435 million in 2017.[12] Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast.

Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its 1,300 kilometres (810 miles) of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar.

Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only fully democratic sovereign state in the Arab world.[19][20] It has a high human development index.[15] It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe, in particular with France[21] and with Italy,[22][23] have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization.

In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next 800 years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, occupied it for most of the next 800 years, and introduced Islam. They were followed by the Ottoman Empire who conquered & colonized the region between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over 300 years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014,[24] and for President on 23 November 2014.[25] As a result, Tunisia is the only country in North Africa classified as "Free" by the Freedom House organization.[26]

Etymology

The word Tunisia is derived from Tunis; a central urban hub and the capital of modern-day Tunisia. The present form of the name, with its Latinate suffix -ia, evolved from French Tunisie.,[27] in turn generally associated with the Berber root ⵜⵏⵙ, transcribed tns, which means "to lay down" or "encampment".[28] It is sometimes also associated with the Punic goddess Tanith (aka Tunit),[27][29] ancient city of Tynes.[30][31]

The French derivative Tunisie was adopted in some European languages with slight modifications, introducing a distinctive name to designate the country. Other languages remained untouched, such as the Russian Туни́с (Tunís) and Spanish Túnez. In this case, the same name is used for both country and city, as with the Arabic تونس‎, and only by context can one tell the difference.[27]

Before Tunisia, the territory's name was Ifriqiya or Africa, which gave the present-day name of the continent Africa.

Other Languages
Acèh: Tunisia
адыгабзэ: Тунис
Afrikaans: Tunisië
Alemannisch: Tunesien
አማርኛ: ቱኒዚያ
Ænglisc: Tunisia
العربية: تونس
aragonés: Tunicia
arpetan: Tunisie
asturianu: Tunicia
azərbaycanca: Tunis
تۆرکجه: تونیس
bamanankan: Tunizi
Banjar: Tunisia
Bân-lâm-gú: Tunisia
башҡортса: Тунис
беларуская: Туніс
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Туніс
भोजपुरी: ट्यूनीशिया
Bikol Central: Tunisya
български: Тунис
བོད་ཡིག: ཏུ་ནི་ཤི་ཡ།
bosanski: Tunis
brezhoneg: Tunizia
буряад: Тунис
català: Tunísia
Чӑвашла: Тунис
Cebuano: Tunisia
čeština: Tunisko
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Túnez
chiShona: Tunisia
Cymraeg: Tiwnisia
dansk: Tunesien
davvisámegiella: Tunisia
Deutsch: Tunesien
ދިވެހިބަސް: ތޫނިސް
डोटेली: ट्युनिसिया
eesti: Tuneesia
Ελληνικά: Τυνησία
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Tüniṡia
español: Túnez
Esperanto: Tunizio
estremeñu: Túnis
euskara: Tunisia
eʋegbe: Tunisia
فارسی: تونس
Fiji Hindi: Tunisia
føroyskt: Tunesia
français: Tunisie
Frysk: Tuneezje
Gaeilge: An Túinéis
Gagauz: Tunis
Gàidhlig: Tuinisia
galego: Tunisia
Gĩkũyũ: Tunisia
ગુજરાતી: ટ્યુનિશિયા
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: ट्युनिशिया
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Tunisia
한국어: 튀니지
Hausa: Tunisiya
Hawaiʻi: Tunisia
հայերեն: Թունիս
Արեւմտահայերէն: Թունիս
हिन्दी: तूनिसीया
hornjoserbsce: Tuneziska
hrvatski: Tunis
Ido: Tunizia
Igbo: Tunisia
Ilokano: Tunisia
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: তিউনিসিয়া
Bahasa Indonesia: Tunisia
interlingua: Tunisia
Interlingue: Tunisia
Ирон: Тунис
isiZulu: ITunisia
íslenska: Túnis
italiano: Tunisia
עברית: תוניסיה
Jawa: Tunisia
Kabɩyɛ: Tuniizii
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಟುನೀಶಿಯ
Kapampangan: Tunisia
ქართული: ტუნისი
қазақша: Тунис
kernowek: Tunisi
Kinyarwanda: Tunisiya
Kiswahili: Tunisia
Kongo: Tunisia
Kreyòl ayisyen: Tinizi
kurdî: Tûnis
Кыргызча: Тунис
кырык мары: Тунис
Ladino: Tunesia
Latina: Tunesia
latviešu: Tunisija
Lëtzebuergesch: Tunesien
lietuvių: Tunisas
Ligure: Tunixia
Limburgs: Tunesië
lingála: Tunisia
Lingua Franca Nova: Tunis
Livvinkarjala: Tunisu
la .lojban.: tunis
Luganda: Tunisia
lumbaart: Tünisia
magyar: Tunézia
македонски: Тунис
Malagasy: Tonizia
മലയാളം: ടുണീഷ്യ
Malti: Tuneżija
მარგალური: ტუნისი
مصرى: تونس
مازِرونی: تونس
Bahasa Melayu: Tunisia
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Tunisia
мокшень: Тунис
монгол: Тунис
မြန်မာဘာသာ: တူနီးရှားနိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Tunez
Nederlands: Tunesië
नेपाली: ट्युनिसिया
नेपाल भाषा: ट्युनिसिया
日本語: チュニジア
нохчийн: Тунис
Nordfriisk: Tuneesien
Norfuk / Pitkern: Tunisia
norsk: Tunisia
norsk nynorsk: Tunisia
Novial: Tunisia
occitan: Tunisia
Oromoo: Tuniisiyaa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Tunis
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਟੁਨੀਸ਼ੀਆ
پنجابی: ٹیونس
Papiamentu: Tunesia
پښتو: تونس
Patois: Tunisia
Piemontèis: Tunisìa
Plattdüütsch: Tunesien
polski: Tunezja
Ποντιακά: Τυνησίαν
português: Tunísia
Qaraqalpaqsha: Tunis
qırımtatarca: Tunis
română: Tunisia
rumantsch: Tunesia
Runa Simi: Tunisya
русиньскый: Тунис
русский: Тунис
саха тыла: Тунис
Gagana Samoa: Tunisia
संस्कृतम्: टुनिशिया
Sängö: Tunizïi
sardu: Tunisia
Scots: Tunisie
Seeltersk: Tunesien
Sesotho: Tunisia
Sesotho sa Leboa: Tunisia
shqip: Tunizia
sicilianu: Tunisìa
Simple English: Tunisia
SiSwati: IThunisiya
slovenčina: Tunisko
slovenščina: Tunizija
ślůnski: Tůnezyjo
Soomaaliga: Tunisiya
کوردی: توونس
српски / srpski: Тунис
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Tunis
Sunda: Tunisia
suomi: Tunisia
svenska: Tunisien
Tagalog: Tunisia
தமிழ்: தூனிசியா
Taqbaylit: Tunes
татарча/tatarça: Тунис
తెలుగు: ట్యునీషియా
ትግርኛ: ቱኒዢያ
тоҷикӣ: Тунис
Türkçe: Tunus
Türkmençe: Tunis
Twi: Tunisia
удмурт: Тунис (кун)
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Tounes
українська: Туніс
اردو: تونس
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: تۇنىس
Vahcuengh: Tunisia
vèneto: Tunixia
vepsän kel’: Tunis
Tiếng Việt: Tunisia
Volapük: Tünisän
Võro: Tuneesiä
walon: Tunizeye
文言: 突尼斯
Winaray: Tunisia
Wolof: Tiniisi
吴语: 突尼斯
Xitsonga: Tunisia
ייִדיש: טוניסיע
Yorùbá: Tùnísíà
粵語: 突尼西亞
Zazaki: Tunıs
žemaitėška: Tonėsos
中文: 突尼西亞