Tsunami

3D tsunami simulation

A tsunami (from Japanese: 津波, "harbour wave"; [1] English pronunciation: i/ tsoo-NAH-mee [2]) or tidal wave is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an ocean or a large lake. [3] Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and other underwater explosions (including detonations of underwater nuclear devices), landslides, glacier calvings, meteorite impacts and other disturbances above or below water all have the potential to generate a tsunami. [4] Unlike normal ocean waves, which are generated by wind, or tides, which are generated by the gravitational pull of the Moon and the Sun, a tsunami is generated by the displacement of water.

Tsunami waves do not resemble normal undersea currents or sea waves, because their wavelength is far longer. [5] Rather than appearing as a breaking wave, a tsunami may instead initially resemble a rapidly rising tide, and for this reason they are often referred to as tidal waves, although this usage is not favoured by the scientific community because tsunamis are not tidal in nature. Tsunamis generally consist of a series of waves, with periods ranging from minutes to hours, arriving in a so-called " internal wave train". [6] Wave heights of tens of metres can be generated by large events. Although the impact of tsunamis is limited to coastal areas, their destructive power can be enormous and they can affect entire ocean basins; the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was among the deadliest natural disasters in human history, with at least 230,000 people killed or missing in 14 countries bordering the Indian Ocean.

Greek historian Thucydides suggested in his late-5th century BC History of the Peloponnesian War, that tsunamis were related to submarine earthquakes, [7] [8] but the understanding of a tsunami's nature remained slim until the 20th century and much remains unknown. Major areas of current research include trying to determine why some large earthquakes do not generate tsunamis while other smaller ones do; trying to accurately forecast the passage of tsunamis across the oceans; and also to forecast how tsunami waves interact with specific shorelines.

Terminology

Tsunami warning bilingual sign in Ulee Lheue, Banda Aceh in Acehnese and Indonesian

Tsunami

The term tsunami, meaning "harbour wave" in literal translation, comes from the Japanese 津波, composed of the two kanji (tsu) meaning " harbour" and (nami), meaning " wave". (For the plural, one can either follow ordinary English practice and add an s, or use an invariable plural as in the Japanese. [9]) While not entirely accurate, as tsunami are not restricted to harbours, tsunami is currently the term most widely accepted by geologists and oceanographers.

Tidal wave

Tsunami aftermath in Aceh, Indonesia, December 2004.

Tsunamis are sometimes referred to as tidal waves. [10] This once-popular term derives from the most common appearance of a tsunami, which is that of an extraordinarily high tidal bore. Tsunamis and tides both produce waves of water that move inland, but in the case of a tsunami, the inland movement of water may be much greater, giving the impression of an incredibly high and forceful tide. In recent years, the term "tidal wave" has fallen out of favour, especially in the scientific community, because tsunamis have nothing to do with tides, which are produced by the gravitational pull of the moon and sun rather than the displacement of water. Although the meanings of "tidal" include "resembling" [11] or "having the form or character of" [12] the tides, use of the term tidal wave is discouraged by geologists and oceanographers.

Seismic sea wave

The term seismic sea wave also is used to refer to the phenomenon, because the waves most often are generated by seismic activity such as earthquakes. [13] Prior to the rise of the use of the term tsunami in English, scientists generally encouraged the use of the term seismic sea wave rather than tidal wave. However, like tsunami, seismic sea wave is not a completely accurate term, as forces other than earthquakes – including underwater landslides, volcanic eruptions, underwater explosions, land or ice slumping into the ocean, meteorite impacts, and the weather when the atmospheric pressure changes very rapidly – can generate such waves by displacing water. [14] [15]

Other Languages
Acèh: Ië beuna
Afrikaans: Tsoenami
Alemannisch: Tsunami
العربية: تسونامي
aragonés: Tsunami
অসমীয়া: ছুনামি
asturianu: Tsunami
azərbaycanca: Sunami
تۆرکجه: تسونامی
বাংলা: সুনামি
Bân-lâm-gú: Hái-tiòng
Basa Banyumasan: Tsunami
башҡортса: Цунами
беларуская: Цунамі
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Цунамі
भोजपुरी: सुनामी
Bikol Central: Dolnop
български: Цунами
Boarisch: Tsunami
bosanski: Cunami
brezhoneg: Tsunami
català: Tsunami
čeština: Tsunami
Cymraeg: Tsunami
dansk: Tsunami
Deutsch: Tsunami
eesti: Tsunami
Ελληνικά: Τσουνάμι
español: Tsunami
Esperanto: Cunamo
euskara: Tsunami
فارسی: سونامی
føroyskt: Flóðaldur
français: Tsunami
Frysk: Tsûnamy
Gaeilge: Súnámaí
Gàidhlig: Tsunami
galego: Tsunami
贛語: 海嘯
Gĩkũyũ: Tsunami
ગુજરાતી: સુનામી
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Hói-siau
한국어: 지진 해일
Հայերեն: Ցունամի
हिन्दी: सूनामी
hrvatski: Cunami
Ilokano: Tsunami
Bahasa Indonesia: Tsunami
interlingua: Tsunami
íslenska: Flóðbylgja
italiano: Maremoto
עברית: צונאמי
Basa Jawa: Tsunami
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಸುನಾಮಿ
ქართული: ცუნამი
қазақша: Цунами
Kiswahili: Tsunami
Kreyòl ayisyen: Radmare
Kurdî: Tsunamî
Кыргызча: Цунами
кырык мары: Цунами
Latina: Megacyma
latviešu: Cunami
Lëtzebuergesch: Tsunami
lietuvių: Cunamis
Limburgs: Tsunami
magyar: Cunami
македонски: Цунами
മലയാളം: സുനാമി
मराठी: त्सुनामी
მარგალური: ცუნამი
Bahasa Melayu: Tsunami
Baso Minangkabau: Tsunami
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Hāi-lâung
монгол: Цунами
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဆူနာမီ
Nederlands: Tsunami
Nedersaksies: Vleuigolve
नेपाली: सुनामी
नेपाल भाषा: शुनामी
日本語: 津波
Nordfriisk: Tsunami
norsk: Tsunami
norsk nynorsk: Flodbølgje
occitan: Tsunami
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ସୁନାମି
Oromoo: Tsunamis
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Sunami
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸੁਨਾਮੀ
پنجابی: سونامی
Papiamentu: Tsunami
Plattdüütsch: Tsunami
polski: Tsunami
português: Tsunami
română: Tsunami
русиньскый: Цунамі
русский: Цунами
संस्कृतम्: सुनामी
Scots: Tsunami
shqip: Cunami
sicilianu: Tsunami
සිංහල: සුනාමි
Simple English: Tsunami
slovenčina: Cunami
slovenščina: Cunami
Soomaaliga: Tsunami
کوردی: تسۆنامی
српски / srpski: Цунами
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Cunami
Basa Sunda: Sunami
suomi: Tsunami
svenska: Tsunami
Tagalog: Tsunami
Taqbaylit: Tsunami
татарча/tatarça: Цунами
తెలుగు: సునామి
Türkçe: Tsunami
українська: Цунамі
اردو: سونامی
Vahcuengh: Haij Rongx
Tiếng Việt: Sóng thần
Võro: Tsunami
文言: 海溢
Winaray: Humatol
吴语: 海嘯
ייִדיש: צונאמי
粵語: 海嘯
Zazaki: Tsunami
žemaitėška: Cunamis
中文: 海啸
Kabɩyɛ: Cunaami