Tsardom of Russia

Tsardom of Russia
Русское царство (Russian)
Russkoye tsarstvo
1547–1721
Flag of Russia
Civil ensign
Territory of Russia in       1500,       1600 and       1700.
Territory of Russia in       1500,       1600 and       1700.
CapitalMoscow
(1547–64; 1581–1712)
Alexandrov Kremlin
(1564–81)
Saint Petersburg
(1712–21)
Common languagesRussian
Religion Russian Orthodox
GovernmentAbsolute Monarchy
Tsar (Caesar) 
• 1547–1584
Ivan IV (first)
• 1682–1721
Peter I (last)
LegislatureZemsky Sobor
History 
16 January 1547
1558–1583
1598–1613
1654–1667
1700–1721
10 September 1721
22 October 1721
Population
• 1500[1]
6,000,000
• 1600[1]
14,000,000
CurrencyRussian ruble
ISO 3166 codeRU
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Grand Duchy of Moscow
Russian Empire

The Tsardom of Russia (Russian: Русское царство,[2][3] Russkoje tsarstvo later changed to Российское царство,[4][5] Rossiyskoye tsarstvo), Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth called it Tsardom of Muscovy,[6][7] was the centralized Russian state from the assumption of the title of Tsar by Ivan IV in 1547 until the foundation of the Russian Empire by Peter the Great in 1721.

From 1551 to 1700, Russia grew 35,000 km2 (about the size of the Netherlands) per year.[8] The period includes the upheavals of the transition from the Rurik to the Romanov dynasties, many wars with the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Sweden and the Ottoman Empire as well as the Russian conquest of Siberia, leading up to the ground-changing reign of Peter the Great, who took power in 1689 and transformed the Tsardom into a major European power. During the Great Northern War, he implemented substantial reforms and proclaimed the Russian Empire (Russian: Российская империя, Rossiyskaya imperiya) after victory over Sweden in 1721.

Name

While the oldest endonyms of the Grand Duchy of Moscow used in its documents were Rus' (Russian: Русь) and the Russian land (Russian: Русская земля),[9] a new form of its name, Rusia or Russia, appeared and became common in the 15th century.[10][11][12] In the 1480s Russian state scribes Ivan Cherny and Mikhail Medovartsev mention Russia under the name Росиа, Medovartsev also mentions "the sceptre of Russian lordship (Росийскаго господства)".[13] In the following century Russia co-existed with the old name Rus' and appeared in an inscription on the western portal of the Transfiguration Cathedral of the Spaso-Preobrazhensky Monastery in Yaroslavl (1515), on the icon case of the Theotokos of Vladimir (1514), in the work by Maximus the Greek,[14] the Russian Chronograph written by Dosifei Toporkov (?–1543/44[15]) in 1516–22 and in other sources.[16]

In 1547, Ivan IV assumed the title of “Tsar and Grand Duke of all Rus'” (Царь и Великий князь всея Руси) and was crowned on 16 January,[17] thereby turning the Grand Duchy of Moscow into Tsardom of Russia, or "the Great Russian Tsardom", as it was called in the coronation document,[18] by Constantinople Patriarch Jeremiah II[19][20] and in numerous official texts,[21][22][23][24][25][26] but the state partly remained referred to as Moscovia (English: Muscovy) throughout Europe, predominantly in its Catholic part, though this Latin term was never used in Russia.[27] The two names "Russia" and "Moscovia" appear to have co-existed as interchangeable during the later 16th and throughout the 17th century with different Western maps and sources using different names, so that the country was called "Russia, or Moscovia" (Latin: Russia seu Moscovia) or "Russia, popularly known as Moscovia" (Latin: Russia vulgo Moscovia). In England of the 16th century, it was known both as Russia and Muscovy.[28][29] Such notable Englishmen as Giles Fletcher, author of the book Of the Russe Common Wealth (1591), and Samuel Collins, author of The Present State of Russia (1668), both of whom visited Russia, were familiar with the term Russia and used it in their works.[30] So did numerous other authors, including John Milton, who wrote A brief history of Moscovia and of other less-known countries lying eastward of Russia, published posthumously,[31] starting it with the words: "The Empire of Moscovia, or as others call it, Russia..."[32]

In the Russian Tsardom, the word Russia replaced the old name Rus' in official documents, though the names Rus' and Russian land were still common and synonymous to it,[33] and often appeared in the form Great Russia (Russian: Великая Россия), which is more typical of the 17th century,[34] whereas the state was also known as Great-Russian Tsardom (Russian: Великороссийское царствие).[21]

According to prominent historians like Alexander Zimin and Anna Khoroshkevich, the continuous use of the term Moscovia was a result of traditional habit and the need to distinguish between the Muscovite and the Lithuanian part of the Rus', as well as of the political interests of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, which competed with Moscow for the western regions of the Rus'. Due to the propaganda of the Commonwealth,[35][36] as well as of the Jesuits, the term Moscovia was used instead of Russia in many parts of Europe where prior to the reign of Peter the Great there was a lack of direct knowledge of the country. In Northern Europe and at the court of the Holy Roman Empire, however, the country was known under its own name, Russia or Rossia.[37] Sigismund von Herberstein, ambassador of the Holy Roman Emperor in Russia, used both Russia and Moscovia in his work on the Russian tsardom and noted: "The majority believes that Russia is a changed name of Roxolania. Muscovites ("Russians" in the German version) refute this, saying that their country was originally called Russia (Rosseia)".[38] Pointing to the difference between Latin and Russian names, French captain Jacques Margeret, who served in Russia and left a detailed description of L’Empire de Russie of the early 17th century that was presented to King Henry IV, stated that foreigners make "a mistake when they call them Muscovites and not Russians. When they are asked what nation they are, they respond 'Russac', which means 'Russians', and when they are asked what place they are from, the answer is Moscow, Vologda, Ryasan and other cities".[39] The closest analogue of the Latin term Moscovia in Russia was “Tsardom of Moscow”, or “Moscow Tsardom” (Московское царство), which was used along with the name "Russia",[40][41] sometimes in one sentence, as in the name of the 17th century Russian work On the Great and Glorious Russian Moscow State (Russian: О великом и славном Российском Московском государстве).[42]

Other Languages
asturianu: Zarato rusu
azərbaycanca: Çar Rusiyası
беларуская: Рускае царства
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Маскоўская дзяржава
български: Руско царство
bosanski: Rusko Carstvo
català: Tsarat Rus
čeština: Ruské carství
español: Zarato ruso
Esperanto: Rusa carlando
français: Tsarat de Russie
galego: Tsarato ruso
Bahasa Indonesia: Ketsaran Rusia
italiano: Regno russo
македонски: Царство Русија
Bahasa Melayu: Tsardom Rusia
Nederlands: Tsaardom Rusland
português: Czarado da Rússia
română: Țaratul Rusiei
slovenčina: Ruské cárstvo
slovenščina: Rusko carstvo
српски / srpski: Руско царство
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Rusko Carstvo
svenska: Tsarryssland
татарча/tatarça: Русия патшалыгы
Tiếng Việt: Nước Nga Sa hoàng