Treaty of Versailles

Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Peace between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany[1]
Cover of the English version
Signed28 June 1919[2]
LocationHall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles, Paris, France[3]
Effective10 January 1920[4]
ConditionRatification by Germany and three Principal Allied Powers.[1]
SignatoriesCentral Powers

 Germany[1]


Allied Powers
 United States[1]
 British Empire[1]
 France[1]
 Italy[1]
 Japan[1]


DepositaryFrench Government[5]
LanguagesFrench and English[5]
Treaty of Versailles at Wikisource
Events leading to World War II
Treaty of Versailles1919
Treaty of Trianon1920
Treaty of Rapallo1920
Franco-Polish alliance1921
March on Rome1922
Corfu incident1923
Occupation of the Ruhr 1923–1925
Mein Kampf1925
Pacification of Libya 1923–1932
Dawes Plan 1924
Locarno Treaties 1925
Chinese Civil War 1927–1936
Young Plan 1929
Great Depression 1929–1941
Japanese invasion of Manchuria1931
Pacification of Manchukuo 1931–1942
January 28 Incident 1932
World Disarmament Conference 1932–1934
Defense of the Great Wall 1933
Battle of Rehe 1933
Tanggu Truce 1933
Nazis rise to power in Germany1933
Italo-Soviet Pact 1933
Inner Mongolian Campaign1933–1936
German-Polish Non-Aggression Pact1934
Franco-Soviet Treaty of Mutual Assistance1935
Soviet–Czechoslovakia Treaty of Mutual Assistance1935
Anglo-German Naval Agreement1935
Second Italo-Ethiopian War1935–1936
Remilitarization of the Rhineland1936
Spanish Civil War1936–1939
Anti-Comintern Pact1936
Suiyuan Campaign1936
Second Sino-Japanese War1937–1945
USS Panay incident 1937
AnschlussMar. 1938
May crisis May 1938
Battle of Lake KhasanJuly–Aug. 1938
Undeclared German-Czechoslovak WarSep. 1938
Munich Agreement Sep. 1938
First Vienna Award Nov. 1938
German occupation of CzechoslovakiaMar. 1939
German ultimatum to LithuaniaMar. 1939
Slovak–Hungarian WarMar. 1939
Final offensive of the Spanish Civil WarMar.–Apr. 1939
Danzig CrisisMar.–Aug. 1939
British guarantee to PolandMar. 1939
Italian invasion of AlbaniaApr. 1939
Soviet–British–French Moscow negotiationsApr.–Aug. 1939
Pact of SteelMay 1939
Battles of Khalkhin GolMay–Sep. 1939
Molotov–Ribbentrop PactAug. 1939
Invasion of PolandSep. 1939

The Treaty of Versailles (French: Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end. The Treaty ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on 28 June 1919 in Versailles, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, which had directly led to World War I. The other Central Powers on the German side of World War I signed separate treaties.[6] Although the armistice, signed on 11 November 1918, ended the actual fighting, it took six months of Allied negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference to conclude the peace treaty. The treaty was registered by the Secretariat of the League of Nations on 21 October 1919.

Of the many provisions in the treaty, one of the most important and controversial required "Germany [to] accept the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage" during the war (the other members of the Central Powers signed treaties containing similar articles). This article, Article 231, later became known as the War Guilt clause. The treaty required Germany to disarm, make ample territorial concessions, and pay reparations to certain countries that had formed the Entente powers. In 1921 the total cost of these reparations was assessed at 132 billion marks (then $31.4 billion or £6.6 billion, roughly equivalent to US $442 billion or UK £284 billion in 2019). At the time economists, notably John Maynard Keynes (a British delegate to the Paris Peace Conference), predicted that the treaty was too harsh—a "Carthaginian peace"—and said the reparations figure was excessive and counter-productive, views that, since then, have been the subject of ongoing debate by historians and economists from several countries. On the other hand, prominent figures on the Allied side such as French Marshal Ferdinand Foch criticized the treaty for treating Germany too leniently.

The result of these competing and sometimes conflicting goals among the victors was a compromise that left no one content: Germany was neither pacified nor conciliated, nor was it permanently weakened. The problems that arose from the treaty would lead to the Locarno Treaties, which improved relations between Germany and the other European powers, and the re-negotiation of the reparation system resulting in the Dawes Plan, the Young Plan, and the indefinite postponement of reparations at the Lausanne Conference of 1932.

Although it is often referred to as the "Versailles Conference", only the actual signing of the treaty took place at the historic palace. Most of the negotiations were in Paris, with the "Big Four" meetings taking place generally at the Quai d'Orsay.

Background

First World War

Newsreel footage of the signing of the peace treaty of Versailles.

On 28 June 1914 the Bosnian-Serbs assassinated the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary in the name of Serbian nationalism.[7] This caused a rapidly escalating July Crisis resulting in Austria-Hungary declaring war on Serbia, followed quickly by the entry of most European powers into First World War.[8] Two alliances faced off, the Central Powers (led by Germany) and the Triple Entente (led by Britain, France and Russia). Other countries entered as fighting ranged widely across Europe, as well as the Middle East, Africa and AsiaIn 1917, two revolutions occurred within the Russian Empire. The new Bolshevik government under Vladimir Lenin in March 1918 signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk that was highly favourable to Germany. Sensing victory before American armies could be ready, Germany now shifted forced to the Western Front and tried to overwhelm the Allies. It failed. Instead the Allies won decisively on the battlefield and forced an armistice in November 1918 that resembled a surrender.[9]

US entry and the Fourteen Points

On 6 April 1917, the United States entered the war against the Central Powers. The motives were twofold: German submarine warfare against merchant ships trading with France and Britain, which led to the sinking of the RMS Lusitania and the loss of 128 American lives; and the interception of the German Zimmermann Telegram, urging Mexico to declare war against the United States.[10] The American war aim was to detach the war from nationalistic disputes and ambitions after the Bolshevik disclosure of secret treaties between the Allies. The existence of these treaties tended to discredit Allied claims that Germany was the sole power with aggressive ambitions.[11]

On 8 January 1918, President Woodrow Wilson issued the nation's postwar goals, the Fourteen Points. It outlined a policy of free trade, open agreements, and democracy. While the term was not used self-determination was assumed. It called for a negotiated end to the war, international disarmament, the withdrawal of the Central Powers from occupied territories, the creation of a Polish state, the redrawing of Europe's borders along ethnic lines, and the formation of a League of Nations to guarantee the political independence and territorial integrity of all states.[12][13] It called for a just and democratic peace uncompromised by territorial annexations. The Fourteen Points were based on the research of the Inquiry, a team of about 150 advisors led by foreign-policy advisor Edward M. House, into the topics likely to arise in the expected peace conference.[14]

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, 1918

Map of Eastern Europe. A bold line shows the new border of Soviet Russia. The coloured portion indicates the area occupied by the Central Powers.
The borders of Eastern Europe, as drawn up in Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

After the Central Powers launched Operation Faustschlag on the Eastern Front, the new Soviet Government of Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany on 3 March 1918.[15] This treaty ended the war between Russia and the Central powers and annexed 1,300,000 square miles (3,400,000 km2) of territory and 62 million people.[16] This loss equated to a third of the Russian population, a quarter of its territory, around a third of the country's arable land, three-quarters of its coal and iron, a third of its factories (totalling 54 percent of the nation's industrial capacity), and a quarter of its railroads.[16][17]

Armistice

During the autumn of 1918, the Central Powers began to collapse.[18] Desertion rates within the German army began to increase, and civilian strikes drastically reduced war production.[19][20] On the Western Front, the Allied forces launched the Hundred Days Offensive and decisively defeated the German western armies.[21] Sailors of the Imperial German Navy at Kiel mutinied, which prompted uprisings in Germany, which became known as the German Revolution.[22][23] The German government tried to obtain a peace settlement based on the Fourteen Points, and maintained it was on this basis that they surrendered. Following negotiations, the Allied powers and Germany signed an armistice, which came into effect on 11 November while German forces were still positioned in France and Belgium.[24][25][26]

Occupation

The terms of the armistice called for an immediate evacuation of German troops from occupied Belgium, France, and Luxembourg within fifteen days.[27] In addition, it established that Allied forces would occupy the Rhineland. In late 1918, Allied troops entered Germany and began the occupation.[28]

Blockade

Both the German Empire and Great Britain were dependent on imports of food and raw materials, primarily from the Americas, which had to be shipped across the Atlantic Ocean. The Blockade of Germany (1914–1919) was a naval operation conducted by the Allied Powers to stop the supply of raw materials and foodstuffs reaching the Central Powers. The German Kaiserliche Marine was mainly restricted to the German Bight and used commerce raiders and unrestricted submarine warfare for a counter-blockade. The German Board of Public Health in December 1918 stated that 763,000 German civilians had died during the Allied blockade, although an academic study in 1928 put the death toll at 424,000 people.[29]

Other Languages
Alemannisch: Versailler Vertrag
العربية: معاهدة فرساي
Bân-lâm-gú: Versailles Tiâu-iok
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Вэрсальская мірная дамова 1919 году
Bahasa Indonesia: Perjanjian Versailles
къарачай-малкъар: Версаль мамырлыкъ кесамат
Lëtzebuergesch: Traité vu Versailles
македонски: Версајски договор
Bahasa Melayu: Persetiaan Versailles
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဗာဆိုင်းစာချုပ်
norsk nynorsk: Versaillestraktaten
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Versal sulh shartnomasi
Simple English: Treaty of Versailles
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Versajski sporazum
татарча/tatarça: Версаль килешүе
Tiếng Việt: Hòa ước Versailles
žemaitėška: Versale sosėtarėms