Treaty of Amiens

Treaty of Amiens
"Definitive Treaty of Peace"
James Gillray, The first Kiss this Ten Years! —or—the meeting of Britannia & Citizen François (1803)
TypePeace treaty
Signed25 March 1802
LocationAmiens, France
Effective25 March 1802
Expiration18 May 1803
SignatoriesJoseph Bonaparte for the French Republic
Marquess Cornwallis for Britain
José Nicolás de Azara for the Kingdom of Spain
Rutger Jan Schimmelpenninck for the Batavian Republic
LanguageEnglish,
French

The Treaty of Amiens (French: la paix d'Amiens) temporarily ended hostilities between France and the United Kingdom during the French Revolutionary Wars. It was signed in the city of Amiens on 25 March 1802 (4 Germinal X in the French Revolutionary calendar) by Joseph Bonaparte and Marquess Cornwallis as a "Definitive Treaty of Peace." The consequent peace lasted only one year (18 May 1803) and was the only period of general peace in Europe between 1793 and 1814.

Under the treaty, Britain recognised the French Republic. Together with the Treaty of Lunéville (1801), the Treaty of Amiens marked the end of the Second Coalition, which had waged war against Revolutionary France since 1798.

National goals

Great Britain wanted the peace to rebuild economically especially by restoration of trade with continental Europe. It also wanted to end its isolation from other powers, and achieved that goal by a rapprochement with Russia that provided the momentum to agree to the treaty with France. Amiens also mollified the antiwar Whig opposition in Parliament.[1]

Napoleon used the interlude for major internal reforms such as the promulgation of the new legal system under the Code Napoleon, making peace with the Vatican by the Concordat, and issuing a new constitution that gave him lifetime control. France made territorial gains in Switzerland and Italy. However Napoleon's goal of a North American Empire collapsed with the failure of his army in Haiti, so he gave it up and sold Louisiana to the United States.[2]

The administration of President Thomas Jefferson used British banks to fund the purchase of Louisiana, reduced the American military budget, and partly dismantled the Hamiltonian financial program. However the French colonies in the West Indies no longer needed to use American ships to move their products to Europe. Although the terms of the Treaty did not favour his country, British Prime Minister Henry Addington skillfully used the interlude to rebuild British strength, so that when fighting renewed in spring 1803, the Royal Navy quickly gained control of the seas.[3] However the foreign policy of the United States, which was hostile to both Britain and France, and strongly opposed by the Federalist minority in Congress, came under heavy pressure from all sides.[4]

Other Languages
العربية: معاهدة أميان
azərbaycanca: Amyen sülhü
français: Paix d'Amiens
한국어: 아미앵 조약
Bahasa Indonesia: Persetujuan Amiens
къарачай-малкъар: Амьен мамырлыкъ
Nederlands: Vrede van Amiens
Plattdüütsch: Freed vun Amiens
português: Tratado de Amiens
Simple English: Treaty of Amiens
slovenščina: Amienski mir
српски / srpski: Амијенски мир
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Amienski mir
українська: Ам'єнський мир
Tiếng Việt: Hiệp ước Amiens
中文: 亞眠和約