Toyota Supra

Toyota Supra
Toyota Supra SZ (A80) front.jpg
Toyota Supra SZ (JZA80, Japan)
Overview
Manufacturer Toyota
Also called
  • Toyota Celica XX
  • Toyota Celica Supra
Production April 1978 [1]–2002
Assembly
Body and chassis
Class
Body style 2+2 fastback coupe
Layout Front-engine, rear-wheel drive
Chronology
Predecessor Toyota 2000GT

The Toyota Supra is a sports car/ grand tourer that was produced by Toyota Motor Corporation from 1978 to 2002. The styling of the Supra was derived from the Toyota Celica, but it was both longer and wider. [2] Starting in mid-1986, the A70 Supra became a separate model from the Celica. In turn, Toyota also stopped using the prefix Celica and began just calling the car Supra. [3] Owing to the similarity and past of the Celica's name, it is frequently mistaken for the Supra, and vice versa. First, second, and third generation Supras were assembled at Tahara plant in Tahara, Aichi while the fourth generation Supra was assembled at the Motomachi plant in Toyota City.

The Supra also traces much of its roots back to the Toyota 2000GT with the main instance being its engine. The first three generations were offered with a direct descendant to the Toyota Crown's and 2000GT's M engine. All four generations of Supra produced have an inline 6-cylinder engine. Interior aspects were also similar, as was the chassis code "A".

Along with this name and car Toyota also included its own logo for the Supra. It is derived from the original Celica logo, being blue instead of orange. This logo was used until January 1986, when the A70 Supra was introduced. The new logo was similar in size, with orange writing on a red background, but without the dragon design. That logo, in turn, was on Supras until 1991 when Toyota switched to its current oval company logo. (The dragon logo was a Celica logo regardless of what color it was. It appeared on the first two generations of the Supra because they were officially Toyota Celicas. The dragon logo was used for the Celica line until it too was discontinued.)

In 1998, Toyota ceased sales of the Supra in the United States [3] and in 2002 Toyota officially stopped production of the Supra in Japan.

Generation names are A40, A60, A70, A80. A trend started by American owners was to name the cars using Volkswagen Mark terms but this was never adopted by Toyota nor used in any of its publications. The official Toyota names refer to the chassis codes only. Toyota uses the name Mark II to refer to its X chassis platform cars that include the Mark II, Cressida, Chaser, and Cresta models.

The Supra has appeared in numerous video games, movies, music videos and TV shows. Some of the most notable appearances include the Gran Turismo, Forza Motorsport, Need for Speed, Midnight Club, and Forza Horizon video games and The Fast and the Furious film series. [4] [5]

A40 (1978–1981)

A40
1981 Toyota Supra.jpg
1981 Toyota Celica Supra (MA47, Canada)
Overview
Also called Toyota Celica XX
Production April 1978 – June 1981 [1]
Body and chassis
Body style fastback coupe
Related
Powertrain
Engine
  • 1,988 cc (1.988 L; 121.3 cu in) M-EU I6
  • 2,563 cc (2.563 L; 156.4 cu in) 4M-E I6
  • 2,759 cc (2.759 L; 168.4 cu in) 5M-E I6
Transmission
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,629 mm (103.5 in)
Length 4,615 mm (181.7 in)
Width 1,651 mm (65.0 in)
Height 1,290 mm (50.8 in)
Curb weight 1,270 kg (2,800 lb)
Toyota Celica XX 2000G (MA45, Japan)

The first generation Supra was based largely upon the Toyota Celica liftback, but was longer by 129.5 mm (5.10 in). The doors and rear section were shared with the Celica but the front panels were elongated to accommodate the Inline-6 instead of the stock Celica's 4-cylinder engine. Toyota's original plan for the Supra at this time was to make it a competitor to the very popular Datsun (now Nissan) Z-car.

1978

In April 1978 Toyota began production of the Supra in Japan, as the Celica XX, and sold alongside the Celica at Japanese dealership sales channels called Toyota Corolla Store

The Supra was offered with a 123 hp (92 kW) 2.0 L 12-valve SOHC inline-6 engine ( M-EU, chassis code MA45) or the 110 hp (82 kW) 2,563 cc (2.563 L; 156.4 cu in) 12-valve SOHC inline-6 engine ( 4M-E, chassis code MA46). The Japanese Supra was equipped with the smaller 2.0 L engine so that buyers would not incur an additional tax under vehicle size and engine displacement regulations. Both engines were equipped with electronic fuel injection. [3] [6] The installation of the 2.0 litre engine did obligate Japanese buyers to pay a higher annual road tax, making owning the car more expensive than the smaller Celica.

The Supra was first exported outside Japan in January 1979. [7] The export version of the Mark I was originally equipped with a 110 hp (82 kW) 2,563 cc (2.563 L; 156.4 cu in) 12-valve SOHC inline-6 engine ( 4M-E, chassis code MA46).

Drive train options for the model were either a 5-speed manual ( W50) or an optional 4-speed automatic transmission ( A40D). Both transmissions featured an overdrive gear. The top gear in the 5-speed was its overdrive gear whereas the automatic transmission featured an overdrive gear that would engage at speeds over 35 mph (56 km/h). The drive train for the Supra retained the T series solid rear axle configuration of the Celica in the Japanese MA45 version and a larger F series (and optional Limited Slip Differential) in the MA46 and MA47. The car also came standard with 4-wheel disc brakes and featured a four-link rear suspension with coil springs, lateral track bar, and stabilizer bar. The front suspension consisted of MacPherson struts and a stabilizer bar.

The interior of the Supra had optional power windows and power locks as part of the convenience package. The convenience package also included cruise control and special door trim with door pull straps, with an optional sunroof. As for standard features, in the center console there was an extendable map light and a flip-top armrest, which provided storage. Some other features were the tilt steering wheel, deep zippered pockets on the backs of the front seats, and a tonneau cover under the liftback. The dashboard also contained a state of the art AM/ FM/MPX 4-speaker stereo radio, analog clock, and tachometer as part of the instrument panel.

1979

The mid 1979 changes for the 1980 model year US version were mostly cosmetic. The interior received a redesigned center console and a digital quartz clock. On the exterior were redesigned side view mirrors and 14x512" aluminum wheels were standard (the previous year had steel wheels with plastic wheel covers standard and the aluminum wheels were optional). In addition, body molded mudflaps became available. On the copper metallic and white cars, the mudflaps were painted the body color while the mudflaps were left black on all other colors. On the rear of the mudflaps, the word "Celica" was painted in white lettering. [8]

The official Supra site [3] also notes that there was an addition of optional leather-trimmed seating and automatic climate-control.

1980

1981 Supra with Sports Performance Package (MA47, US)

In August 1980 (for the 1981 model year), the Supra received an upgrade in displacement with the 2,759 cc (2.759 L; 168.4 cu in) 5M-E engine. It was still a 12-valve SOHC engine, but made 116 hp (87 kW) and 145 lb·ft (197 N·m) of torque. The car's automatic transmission was changed to the revised Toyota A43D and it gained a revised final drive gearing. Because of the change in engine and transmission they dubbed a new chassis code of MA47. In the final year of the first generation supra, it achieved a 0–60 mph time of 10.24 seconds and finished the 1/4-mile in 17.5 seconds at 77.7 mph (125.0 km/h). [9]

Also in 1980 (for the 1981 model year), a new Sports Performance Package became an option, which included sport suspension, raised white letter tires, and front and rear spoilers. This also marked the last year that an 8-track tape player was offered in any Supra. [3] [8]

Powertrain

Code Year Engine Power Torque Transmission Market
MA45 Apr 1978 – Aug 1980 1,988 cc (1.988 L; 121.3 cu in) M-EU I6 123 hp (92 kW) 136 lb·ft (184 N·m) 5-speed W50 manual
4-speed A40D automatic
Japan
MA46 Apr 1978 – Aug 1980 2,563 cc (2.563 L; 156.4 cu in) 4M-E I6 110 hp (82 kW) 136 lb·ft (184 N·m) Japan
Jan 1979 – Aug 1980 world
MA47 Aug 1980 – Jul 1981 2,759 cc (2.759 L; 168.4 cu in) 5M-E I6 116 hp (87 kW) 145 lb·ft (197 N·m) 5-speed W50 manual
4-speed A43D automatic
world

Celica XX

1979 Toyota Celica XX 2000G (MA45, Japan)

The Celica XX (pronounced as "double X") is the Japanese market name of the first generation model Toyota Celica Supra. It was offered in Japan during the years 1978–1981, and was redesigned in 1981. Toyota obtained engineering assistance from Lotus Cars, and supplied some components for use in the Lotus Excel. The Supra was sold as the Celica XX only in Japan at Japanese dealership sales channels called Toyota Corolla Store, as elsewhere it was sold as the Celica Supra, although they remain popular as grey imports to New Zealand.

The 2000GT was the flagship model of the XX range. Featuring the smaller 2.0-litre six-cylinder DOHC 24-valve 1G-EU, Yamaha took the base 1G-EU and improved it, resulting in the 1G-GEU significantly upping the output of the engine, which also served in the 1985 Toyota Soarer. The smaller-capacity engine meant road taxes were less than the bigger 5M-GEU of the 2800GT. 1G-GEU made 160 PS (118 kW) at 6400 rpm

The 2800GT was the most powerful of the range, featuring the 2.8-litre six-cylinder DOHC 5M-GEU making 175 PS (129 kW) at 5,600 rpm. The 2000G/S with M-TEU with intercooler made 160 PS (118 kW) at 5400 rpm, as much as the 1G-GEU, but made more torque lower down the rev range, 23.5 m· kgf (230 N·m at 3000 rpm.The lower-range models, being 2000G/S, were the least powerful, featuring the 1G-EU, which made 125 PS (92 kW) at 5,400 rpm. They also lacked a lot of features found on other models in an effort to lower cost.

In 1981, the Celica XX introduced the world's first navigation computer. [10]

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