Toulouse

Toulouse
Hôpital de La Grave, Ariane 5 (Cité de l'espace), Basilica of Saint-Sernin, Place du Capitole, the very first Airbus A380, Musée des Augustins
Coat of arms of Toulouse
Coat of arms
Motto(s): Per Tolosa totjorn mai.
(Occitan for "For Toulouse, always more")
Toulouse is located in France
Toulouse
Toulouse
Location within Occitanie region
Toulouse is located in Occitanie
Toulouse
Toulouse
Coordinates: 43°36′16″N 1°26′38″E / 43°36′16″N 1°26′38″E / http://www.toulouse.fr/
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Toulouse (z/;[4] French: [tuluz] (About this sound listen); Occitan: Tolosa [tuˈluzɔ], Latin: Tolosa) is the capital of the French department of Haute-Garonne and of the region of Occitanie. The city is on the banks of the River Garonne, 150 kilometres (93 miles) from the Mediterranean Sea, 230 km (143 mi) from the Atlantic Ocean and 680 km (420 mi) from Paris. It is the fourth-largest city in France, with 466,297 inhabitants as of January 2014. In France, Toulouse is called the "Pink City" (La Ville Rose).

The Toulouse Metro area, with 1,312,304 inhabitants as of 2014, is France's fourth-largest metropolitan area, after Paris, Lyon and Marseille, and ahead of Lille and Bordeaux.

Toulouse is the centre of the European aerospace industry, with the headquarters of Airbus (formerly EADS), the Galileo positioning system, the SPOT satellite system, ATR and the Aerospace Valley. It also hosts the European headquarters of Intel and CNES's Toulouse Space Centre (CST), the largest space centre in Europe.[5] Thales Alenia Space, ATR, SAFRAN, Liebherr-Aerospace and Astrium Satellites also have a significant presence in Toulouse.

The University of Toulouse is one of the oldest in Europe (founded in 1229) and, with more than 103,000 students, it is the fourth-largest university campus in France, after the universities of Paris, Lyon and Lille.[6]

The air route between Toulouse–Blagnac and Paris Orly is the busiest in Europe, transporting 2.4 million passengers in 2014.[7] According to the rankings of L'Express and Challenges, Toulouse is the most dynamic French city.[8][9][10]

The city was the capital of the Visigothic Kingdom in the 5th century and the capital of the province of Languedoc in the Late Middle Ages and early modern period (provinces were abolished during the French Revolution), making it the unofficial capital of the cultural region of Occitania (Southern France). It is now the capital of the Occitanie region, the second largest region in Metropolitan France.

A city with unique architecture made of pinkish terracotta bricks, which earned it the nickname la Ville Rose ("the Pink City"), Toulouse counts two UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Canal du Midi (designated in 1996 and shared with other cities), and the Basilica of St. Sernin, the largest remaining Romanesque building in Europe,[11] designated in 1998 because of its significance to the Santiago de Compostela pilgrimage route.

Geography

Toulouse is in the south of France, north of the department of Haute-Garonne, on the axis of communication between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.

Hydrography

The city is traversed by the Canal de Brienne, the Canal du Midi and the rivers Garonne, Touch and Hers-Mort.

Climate

Toulouse has a humid subtropical climate (borderline Cfa/Cfb in the Köppen climate classification) which can be qualified as "submediterranean" due to its proximity to the Mediterranean climate zone.

Climate data for Toulouse (Blagnac) 1981–2010 averages and records 1947–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 21.2
(70.2)
22.1
(71.8)
27.1
(80.8)
30.0
(86)
33.4
(92.1)
39.8
(103.6)
40.2
(104.4)
40.7
(105.3)
35.3
(95.5)
30.8
(87.4)
24.3
(75.7)
21.1
(70)
40.7
(105.3)
Average high °C (°F) 9.5
(49.1)
11.1
(52)
14.5
(58.1)
17.0
(62.6)
21.0
(69.8)
25.2
(77.4)
28.0
(82.4)
27.9
(82.2)
24.6
(76.3)
19.5
(67.1)
13.3
(55.9)
9.9
(49.8)
18.5
(65.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 5.9
(42.6)
7.0
(44.6)
9.8
(49.6)
12.1
(53.8)
16.0
(60.8)
19.7
(67.5)
22.3
(72.1)
22.2
(72)
19.0
(66.2)
15.0
(59)
9.5
(49.1)
6.5
(43.7)
13.8
(56.8)
Average low °C (°F) 2.4
(36.3)
3.0
(37.4)
5.0
(41)
7.1
(44.8)
10.9
(51.6)
14.3
(57.7)
16.5
(61.7)
16.5
(61.7)
13.4
(56.1)
10.5
(50.9)
5.8
(42.4)
3.2
(37.8)
9.1
(48.4)
Record low °C (°F) −17.0
(1.4)
−19.2
(−2.6)
−8.4
(16.9)
−3.0
(26.6)
−0.8
(30.6)
4.0
(39.2)
7.6
(45.7)
5.5
(41.9)
1.9
(35.4)
−3.0
(26.6)
−7.5
(18.5)
−12.0
(10.4)
−19.2
(−2.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 51.3
(2.02)
41.6
(1.638)
49.1
(1.933)
69.6
(2.74)
74.0
(2.913)
60.3
(2.374)
37.7
(1.484)
46.8
(1.843)
47.4
(1.866)
57.0
(2.244)
51.1
(2.012)
52.4
(2.063)
638.3
(25.13)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 9.2 7.8 8.6 9.6 9.9 7.1 5.0 6.1 6.5 8.1 9.2 8.6 95.7
Average snowy days 2.1 2.0 1.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 1.6 7.5
Average relative humidity (%) 87 82 77 76 76 72 68 71 74 81 85 88 78.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 92.5 115.0 175.1 186.1 209.2 227.6 252.6 238.8 204.0 149.2 96.0 85.3 2,031.3
Source #1: Météo France[12][13][14]
Source #2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity and snowy days, 1961–1990)[15]
Other Languages
Afrikaans: Toulouse
Alemannisch: Toulouse
አማርኛ: ቱሉዝ
العربية: تولوز
aragonés: Tolosa
armãneashti: Toulouse
arpetan: Tolosa
asturianu: Toulouse
azərbaycanca: Tuluza
تۆرکجه: تولوز
বাংলা: তুলুজ
Bân-lâm-gú: Toulouse
башҡортса: Тулуза
беларуская: Тулуза
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Тулюза
български: Тулуза
Boarisch: Toulouse
bosanski: Toulouse
brezhoneg: Toloza
Cebuano: Toulouse
čeština: Toulouse
corsu: Tolosa
Cymraeg: Toulouse
dansk: Toulouse
Deutsch: Toulouse
eesti: Toulouse
Ελληνικά: Τουλούζη
español: Toulouse
Esperanto: Tuluzo
estremeñu: Toulouse
فارسی: تولوز
français: Toulouse
Frysk: Toulouse
Gaeilge: Toulouse
Gàidhlig: Toulouse
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Toulouse
한국어: 툴루즈
Hausa: Toulouse
հայերեն: Թուլուզ
हिन्दी: तुलूज़
hrvatski: Toulouse
Bahasa Indonesia: Toulouse
Interlingue: Toulouse
Ирон: Тулузæ
íslenska: Toulouse
italiano: Tolosa
עברית: טולוז
Basa Jawa: Toulouse
kalaallisut: Toulouse
ქართული: ტულუზა
kaszëbsczi: Tólóza
қазақша: Тулуза
Kiswahili: Toulouse
Kreyòl ayisyen: Toulouz
Ladino: Toulouse
Latina: Tolosa
latviešu: Tulūza
Lëtzebuergesch: Toulouse
lietuvių: Tulūza
Limburgs: Toulouse
lingála: Tulúsi
Lingua Franca Nova: Toulouse
magyar: Toulouse
македонски: Тулуза
മലയാളം: ടൂളൂസ്
मराठी: तुलूझ
მარგალური: ტულუზა
مازِرونی: تولوز
Bahasa Melayu: Toulouse
Mirandés: Toulouse
монгол: Тулуз
Nāhuatl: Toulouse
Nederlands: Toulouse (stad)
Napulitano: Tolosa
нохчийн: Тулуза
Nordfriisk: Toulouse
norsk: Toulouse
norsk nynorsk: Toulouse
occitan: Tolosa
олык марий: Тулуза
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Tuluza
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਟੁਲੂਜ਼
پنجابی: تولوز
Piemontèis: Tolosa
polski: Tuluza
Ποντιακά: Τουλούζ
português: Toulouse
română: Toulouse
Runa Simi: Toulouse
русский: Тулуза
sardu: Tolosa
Scots: Toulouse
Seeltersk: Toulouse
shqip: Toulouse
sicilianu: Tolosa
Simple English: Toulouse
slovenčina: Toulouse
slovenščina: Toulouse
ślůnski: Toulouse
Soomaaliga: Toulouse
српски / srpski: Тулуза
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Toulouse
suomi: Toulouse
svenska: Toulouse
தமிழ்: துலூஸ்
Taqbaylit: Toulouse
татарча/tatarça: Тулуза
ไทย: ตูลูซ
Türkçe: Toulouse
Türkmençe: Toulouse
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Toulouse
українська: Тулуза
اردو: تولوز
vèneto: Tołoxa
vepsän kel’: Tuluz
Tiếng Việt: Toulouse
Volapük: Toulouse
Winaray: Toulouse
Wolof: Toulouse
吴语: 图卢兹
ייִדיש: טולוז
粵語: 圖魯茲
中文: 圖盧茲