Tonga

Kingdom of Tonga
Puleʻanga Fakatuʻi ʻo Tonga (Tongan)
Motto: "Ko e ʻOtua mo Tonga ko hoku tofiʻa"
"God and Tonga are my Inheritance"
Anthem: Ko e fasi ʻo e tuʻi ʻo e ʻOtu Tonga
The Song of the King of the Tongan Islands
Location of Tonga
Capital
and largest city
Nukuʻalofa
21°08′S 175°12′W / 21°08′S 175°12′W / -21.133; -175.200
Official languages
Ethnic groups (2016[1])
ReligionFree Wesleyan Church of Tonga[2]
DemonymTongan
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary
constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Tupou VI
ʻAkilisi Pōhiva
Lord Tu'ivakano
LegislatureLegislative Assembly
Independence
4 June 1970
Area
• Total
748 km2 (289 sq mi) (175th)
• Water (%)
4.0
Population
• 2011 census
103,036[3]
• Density
139/km2 (360.0/sq mi) (76tha)
GDP (PPP)2011 estimate
• Total
$763 million[4]
• Per capita
$7,344[4]
GDP (nominal)2011 estimate
• Total
$439 million[4]
• Per capita
$4,220[4]
HDI (2014)Increase 0.717[5]
high · 100th
CurrencyPaʻanga (TOP)
Time zone(UTC+13)
Drives on theleft
Calling code+676
ISO 3166 codeTO
Internet TLD.to
  1. Based on 2005 figures.

Tonga (ə/; Tongan: [ˈtoŋa][6] Puleʻanga Fakatuʻi ʻo Tonga), officially the Kingdom of Tonga, is a Polynesian sovereign state and archipelago comprising 169 islands, of which 36 are inhabited.[1] The total surface area is about 750 square kilometres (290 sq mi) scattered over 700,000 square kilometres (270,000 sq mi) of the southern Pacific Ocean. It has a population of 107,122 people,[7] of whom 70% reside on the main island of Tongatapu.

Tonga stretches across approximately 800 kilometres (500 mi) in a north-south line. It is surrounded by Fiji and Wallis and Futuna (France) to the northwest, Samoa to the northeast, Niue to the east, Kermadec (part of New Zealand) to the southwest, and New Caledonia (France) and Vanuatu to the farther west.

Tonga became known in the West as the "Friendly Islands" because of the congenial reception accorded to Captain James Cook on his first visit in 1773. He arrived at the time of the ʻinasi festival, the yearly donation of the First Fruits to the Tuʻi Tonga (the islands' paramount chief) and so received an invitation to the festivities. According to the writer William Mariner, the chiefs wanted to kill Cook during the gathering but could not agree on a plan.[8]

From 1900 to 1970, Tonga had British protected state status, with the United Kingdom looking after its foreign affairs under a Treaty of Friendship. The country never relinquished its sovereignty to any foreign power.[9] In 2010, Tonga took a decisive path towards becoming a constitutional monarchy rather than a traditional absolute kingdom, after legislative reforms passed a course for the first partial representative elections.

Etymology

In many Polynesian languages, including Tongan, the word tonga comes from fakatonga which means "southwards", as the archipelago is the southernmost group of the islands of central Polynesia.[10] The word tonga is cognate to the Hawaiian region of Kona, meaning leeward in the Hawaiian language.[11]

Other Languages
Acèh: Tonga
Afrikaans: Tonga
Alemannisch: Tonga
አማርኛ: ቶንጋ
العربية: تونغا
aragonés: Tonga
arpetan: Tonga
asturianu: Tonga
azərbaycanca: Tonqa
تۆرکجه: تونقا
বাংলা: টোঙ্গা
Bahasa Banjar: Tonga
Bân-lâm-gú: Tonga
башҡортса: Тонга
беларуская: Тонга
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Тонга
Bikol Central: Tonga
български: Тонга
བོད་ཡིག: ཊོང་ག
bosanski: Tonga
brezhoneg: Tonga
буряад: Тонга
català: Tonga
Cebuano: Tonga
čeština: Tonga
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Tonga
chiShona: Tonga
Cymraeg: Tonga
dansk: Tonga
davvisámegiella: Tonga
Deutsch: Tonga
ދިވެހިބަސް: ޓޮންގާ
dolnoserbski: Tonga
eesti: Tonga
Ελληνικά: Τόνγκα
español: Tonga
Esperanto: Tongo
estremeñu: Tonga
euskara: Tonga
فارسی: تونگا
Fiji Hindi: Tonga
føroyskt: Tonga
français: Tonga
Frysk: Tonga
Gaeilge: Tonga
Gaelg: Yn Tongey
Gagauz: Tonga
Gàidhlig: Tonga
galego: Tonga
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: टोंगा
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Tonga
한국어: 통가
Հայերեն: Տոնգա
हिन्दी: टोंगा
hornjoserbsce: Tonga
hrvatski: Tonga
Ido: Tonga
Ilokano: Tonga
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: টঙ্গা
Bahasa Indonesia: Tonga
interlingua: Tonga
Interlingue: Tonga
Ирон: Тонгæ
íslenska: Tonga
italiano: Tonga
עברית: טונגה
Basa Jawa: Tonga
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಟೋಂಗಾ
Kapampangan: Tonga
ქართული: ტონგა
қазақша: Тонга
kernowek: Tonga
Kinyarwanda: Tonga
Kiswahili: Tonga
Kreyòl ayisyen: Tonga
kurdî: Tonga
Кыргызча: Тонга
кырык мары: Тонга
Latina: Tonga
latviešu: Tonga
Lëtzebuergesch: Tonga
lietuvių: Tonga
Ligure: Tonga
Limburgs: Tonga
Livvinkarjala: Tonga
lumbaart: Tonga
magyar: Tonga
македонски: Тонга
മലയാളം: ടോങ്ക
Malti: Tonga
मराठी: टोंगा
მარგალური: ტონგა
مصرى: تونجا
مازِرونی: تونگا
Bahasa Melayu: Tonga
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Tonga
монгол: Тонга
မြန်မာဘာသာ: တုံဂါနိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Tonga
Dorerin Naoero: Tonga
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Toga
Nederlands: Tonga (land)
日本語: トンガ
нохчийн: Тонга
Norfuk / Pitkern: Tonga
norsk: Tonga
norsk nynorsk: Tonga
occitan: Tònga
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Tonga
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਟੋਂਗਾ
पालि: टोंगा
پنجابی: ٹونگا
Papiamentu: Tonga
Patois: Tongga
Piemontèis: Tònga
Tok Pisin: Tonga
Plattdüütsch: Tonga
polski: Tonga
português: Tonga
Qaraqalpaqsha: Tonga
qırımtatarca: Tonga
reo tahiti: To’a
română: Tonga
rumantsch: Tonga
Runa Simi: Tunqa
русский: Тонга
саха тыла: Тонга
Gagana Samoa: Toga
संस्कृतम्: टोंगा
Scots: Tonga
shqip: Tonga
sicilianu: Tonga
සිංහල: ටොංගා
Simple English: Tonga
slovenčina: Tonga
slovenščina: Tonga
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Тонга
ślůnski: Tůnga
کوردی: تۆنگا
српски / srpski: Тонга
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Tonga
Basa Sunda: Tonga
suomi: Tonga
svenska: Tonga
Tagalog: Tonga
தமிழ்: தொங்கா
татарча/tatarça: Тонга
тоҷикӣ: Тонга
lea faka-Tonga: Tonga
Tsetsêhestâhese: Tonga
Türkçe: Tonga
Türkmençe: Tonga
Twi: Tonga
українська: Тонга
اردو: ٹونگا
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Ton’ga
Vahcuengh: Tonga
vepsän kel’: Tong
Tiếng Việt: Tonga
Volapük: Tonguäns
Võro: Tonga
文言: 東加
Winaray: Tonga
Wolof: Tonga
吴语: 湯加
Xitsonga: Tonga
ייִדיש: טאנגא
Yorùbá: Tóngà
粵語: 湯加
Zazaki: Tonga
žemaitėška: Tuonga
中文: 東加
डोटेली: टोङ्गा
Lingua Franca Nova: Tonga