Tondo (historical polity)

Independent Barangay state (15th century) [1]
before 900 CE [3] [Notes 1]–1589 [2]
The district of Tondo, highlighted in sepia on a Detail of the 1819 Map "Plano de la ciudad de Manila, capital de las Yslas Filipinas", prepared by Francisco Xavier de Herrera lo Grabó for the Manila Land Survey Year of 1819. The consensus among contemporary historiographers is that the location of the district during the Spanish colonial period approximates the location of the archaic polity of Tondo. [1] [4]
Capital Tondo (Now a modern district of Manila) [5]
Languages Old Tagalog, [6] Kapampangan, [7] Bikol[ citation needed]
(local languages)

Old Malay, [3] Middle Chinese[ citation needed]
(trade languages)
Government " Bayan" led by a paramount leader called a Lakan, consisting of several Barangay social groups led by a Datu [1] [4] and initially misidentified as a Monarchy by foreigners [12] [13] [4] [14]
Lakan[ citation needed]
 •  c. 900 Jayadewa (first according to LCI)
 •  c. 1500s Rajah Salalila
 •  1558–1571[ citation needed] Lakandula
 •  1575[ citation needed]–1589 Agustin de Legazpi
 •  First historical mention, in the Laguna Copperplate Inscription; trade relations with the Medang Kingdom implied [5] before 900 CE [3] [Notes 1]
 •  Earliest proposed legendary founding date of neighboring polity of Maynila; defeat of Rajah Avirjirkaya by Rajah Ahmad [Notes 2] c. 1258
 •  Alternate proposed legendary founding date of neighboring polity of Maynila [Notes 3] c. 1365
 •  Establishment of regular trade relations with the Ming dynasty [15][ unreliable source?] 1373
 •  Battle of Manila (1500) (legendary); alternatively also the latest proposed founding date of neighboring polity of Maynila, Muslim influence introduced via intermarriage of ruling family with the Sultanate of Brunei [4] c. 1500
 •  Last resistance against the Spanish [16] 1571
 •  Dissolution upon integration into the Spanish East Indies 1589 [2]
Currency Piloncitos, Gold rings, and Barter [17]
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Barangay state
Prehistory of the Philippines
Rajahnate of Maynila
New Spain
Spanish East Indies
Today part of   Philippines
Warning: Value specified for " continent" does not comply
Pre-Colonial History of the Philippines
Boxer codex.jpg
Barangay government
Ten datus of Borneo
States in Luzon
Caboloan (Pangasinan)
Rajahnate of Maynila
States in the Visayas
Kedatuan of Madja-as
Kedatuan of Dapitan
Rajahnate of Cebu
States in Mindanao
Rajahnate of Butuan
Sultanate of Sulu
Sultanate of Maguindanao
Sultanates of Lanao
Key figures
History of the Philippines
Portal: Philippines

In early Philippine history, the Tagalog settlement [1] [14] [18] [19] at Tondo (Tagalog:  [tonˈdo]; [4] Baybayin: ᜆᜓᜈᜇᜓ or ᜆᜓᜈᜇᜓ; Chinese: ; pinyin: dōngdū) was a major trade hub located on the northern part of the Pasig River delta, on Luzon island. [20] [11] [21]

It is referred to in academic circles as the "Tondo polity" or "Tondo settlement", [22] [11] [1] [4] and the earliest Tagalog dictionaries categorized it as a " Bayan" ("country" or " polity", lit. "settlement"). [19] [1] [4] Travellers from monarchical cultures [22] who had contacts with Tondo (including the Chinese, Portuguese and the Spanish) [23] often initially mislabelled [22] [23] [4] [1] it as the "Kingdom of Tondo". Early Augustinian chronicler Pedro de San Buenaventura explained this to be an error as early as 1613 in his Vocabulario de la Lengua Tagala, [19] but historian Vicente L. Rafael notes that the label was nevertheless later adapted by the popular literature of the Spanish colonial era because of the influence of the Hispanic linguistic tradition. [12] The earliest firsthand Spanish accounts described it as a smaller "village", in comparison to the fortified polity of Maynila. [24]

Tondo is of particular interest to Filipino historians and historiographers because it is one of the oldest historically documented settlements in the Philippines. [22] [23] Scholars generally agree that it was mentioned in the Laguna Copperplate Inscription, the Philippines oldest extant locally produced written document, dating back to 900 CE. [3] [1] [22] [23]

Geographically, it was completely surrounded by bodies of water: mainly the Pasig River to the South and the shore of Manila Bay to the West, but also by several of the delta's rivulets: the Canal de la Reina to the Southeast, the Estero de Sunog Apog to the Northeast, and the Estero de Vitas on its Eastern and Northernmost boundaries. [25]

Politically, Tondo was made up of several social groupings, traditionally [26] referred to by historians as Barangays, [4] [11] [22] which were led by Datus. [1] [4] [22] These Datus in turn recognised the leadership of the most senior among them as a sort of " Paramount datu" called a Lakan over the Bayan. [1] [4] [11] In the middle to late 16th century, its Lakan was held in high regard within the alliance group which was formed by the various Manila Bay area polities, which included Tondo, Maynila, and various polities in Bulacan and Pampanga. [4] [22] Extrapolating from available data, demographer-historian Linda A. Newson has estimated that Tondo may have had a population of roughly 43,000 when the Spanish first arrived in 1570. [27]

Culturally, the Tagalog people of Tondo had a rich Austronesian (specifically Malayo-Polynesian) culture, with its own expressions of language and writing, religion, art, and music dating back to the earliest peoples of the archipelago. [28] [10] This culture was later influenced by its trading relations with the rest of Maritime Southeast Asia. [10] Particularly significant were its relations with Ming dynasty, [29] Malaysia, Brunei, and the Majapahit empire, which served as the main conduit for significant Indian cultural influence, despite the Philippine archipelago's geographical location outside the Indian cultural zone. [10] [11] [30]

Together with Maynila, the polity (bayan) on the southern part of the Pasig River delta, it established a shared monopoly on the trade of Chinese goods throughout the rest of the Philippine archipelago, making it an established force in trade throughout Southeast Asia and East Asia. [31]

Following contact with the Spanish Empire beginning in 1570 and the defeat of local rulers in the Manila Bay area in 1571, Tondo was ruled from Manila (a Spanish fort built on the remains of Maynila). Tondo's absorption into the Spanish Empire effectively ended its status as an independent political entity; it now exists as a district of the modern City of Manila.

Sources and Historiography

Only a few comprehensive reviews of source materials for the study of Philippine prehistory and early history have been done, with William Henry Scott's 1968 review being one of the earliest systematic critiques. [14] Scott's review has become a seminal academic work on the study of early Philippine history, having been reviewed early on by a panel of that era's most eminent historians and folklorists including Teodoro Agoncillo, Horacio de la Costa, Marcelino Foronda, Mercedes Grau Santamaria, Nicholas Zafra and Gregorio Zaide. [32] Scott's 1968 review was acknowledged by Laura Lee Junker when she conducted her own comprehensive 1998 review of primary sources regarding archaic Philippine polities, [14] and by F. Landa Jocano in his Anthropological analysis of Philippine Prehistory. [11]

Scott lists the sources for the study of Philippine prehistory as: archaeology, linguistics and paleogeography, foreign written documents, and quasi-historical genealogical documents. In a later work, [4] he conducts a detailed critique of early written documents and surviving oral or folk traditions connected with the Philippines early historic or protohistoric era. [11]

Sources Scott, [23] [4] Jocano, [11] and Junker [14] consider particularly relevant to the study of the Tondo and Maynila settlements include:

  • Malay texts, [14] [23] [4]
  • Philippine oral traditions, [14] [11]
  • Chinese tributary records and geographies, [14] [23] [4]
  • early Spanish writings, [14] [4] and
  • archeological evidence from the region around Manila Bay, the Pasig River, and Laguna Lake. [14] [23] [4] [11]

Primary sources for the history of Rajah Kalamayin's Namayan, further upriver, include artifacts dug up from archaeological digs (the earliest of which was Robert Fox's [33] work for the National Museum in 1977) and Spanish colonial records (most notably those compiled by the 19th century Franciscan Historian Fray Felix Huerta). [34]

A more detailed discussion of notable archaeological, documentary, and genealogical sources can be found towards the end of this article.

Critical historiography

Junker notes that most of the primary written sources for early Philippine history have inherent biases, which creates a need to counter-check their narratives with one another, and with empirical archaeological evidence. [14] She cites the works of F. Landa Jocano, Felix M. Keesing, and William Henry Scott as notable exceptions. [14]

F. Landa Jocano warns that in the case of early Philippine history, it's essential that "even archaeological findings" be carefully interpreted by experts, because these can be misinterpreted if not analyzed in proper context. [14]

Other Languages
Deutsch: Luzon-Reich
español: Reino de Tondó
한국어: 톤도 왕국
Bahasa Indonesia: Kerajaan Tondo
italiano: Regno di Tondo
српски / srpski: Краљевство Тондо
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Kraljevina Tondo
中文: 湯都王國