Tokugawa shogunate

Tokugawa shogunate
徳川幕府
Edo bakufu
江戸幕府
1600–1868
CapitalHeian-kyō
(Emperor's palace)

Edo
(Shōgun's residence)

LanguagesEarly Modern Japanese
ReligionShinbutsu-shūgō
GovernmentMonarchic feudal stratocracy
Emperor
 • 1600–1611Go-Yōzei
 • 1867–1868Meiji
Shōgun
 • 1600–1605Tokugawa Ieyasu
 • 1867–1868Tokugawa Yoshinobu
Rōjū
 • 1600–1614Ōkubo Tadachika
 • 1868Tachibana Taneyuki
Historical eraEdo period
 • Battle of Sekigahara21 October 1600
 • Siege of Osaka8 November 1614
 • Sakoku Edict1635
 • Treaty of Peace31 March 1854
 • Treaty of Commerce29 July 1858
 • Meiji Restoration3 January 1868
CurrencyThe tri-metallic Tokugawa coinage system based on copper Mon, silver Bu and Shu, as well as gold Ryō.
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Azuchi–Momoyama period
Tokugawa clan
Empire of Japan
Today part of Japan

The Tokugawa shogunate, also known as the Tokugawa bakufu (徳川幕府) and the Edo bakufu (江戸幕府), was the last feudal Japanese military government, which existed between 1600 and 1868.[1] The head of government was the shōgun,[2] and each was a member of the Tokugawa clan.[3] The Tokugawa shogunate ruled from Edo Castle and the years of the shogunate became known as the Edo period.[4] This time is also called the Tokugawa period[1] or pre-modern (Kinsei (近世)).[5]

History

Following the Sengoku period ("warring states period"), the central government had been largely re-established by Oda Nobunaga during the Azuchi–Momoyama period. After the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600, central authority fell to Tokugawa Ieyasu.[1]

Society in the Tokugawa period, unlike in previous shogunates, was supposedly based on the strict class hierarchy originally established by Toyotomi Hideyoshi. The daimyō (lords) were at the top, followed by the warrior-caste of samurai, with the farmers, artisans, and traders ranking below. In some parts of the country, particularly smaller regions, daimyō and samurai were more or less identical, since daimyō might be trained as samurai, and samurai might act as local rulers. Otherwise, the largely inflexible nature of this social stratification system unleashed disruptive forces over time. Taxes on the peasantry were set at fixed amounts that did not account for inflation or other changes in monetary value. As a result, the tax revenues collected by the samurai landowners were worth less and less over time. This often led to numerous confrontations between noble but impoverished samurai and well-to-do peasants, ranging from simple local disturbances to much larger rebellions. None, however, proved compelling enough to seriously challenge the established order until the arrival of foreign powers.

A 2017 study found that peasant rebellions and collective desertion (“flight”) lowered tax rates and inhibited state growth in the Tokugawa shogunate.[6]

In the mid-19th century, an alliance of several of the more powerful daimyō, along with the titular Emperor, succeeded in overthrowing the shogunate after the Boshin War, culminating in the Meiji Restoration. The Tokugawa shogunate came to an official end in 1868 with the resignation of the 15th Tokugawa shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu, leading to the "restoration" (王政復古, Ōsei fukko) of imperial rule. Notwithstanding its eventual overthrow in favor of the more modernized, less feudal form of governance of the Meiji Restoration, the Tokugawa shogunate oversaw the longest period of peace and stability in Japan's history, lasting well over 260 years.

Other Languages
azərbaycanca: Tokuqava sülaləsi
Bân-lâm-gú: Edo bō͘-hú
беларуская: Сёгунат Такугава
Bikol Central: Shogunato kan Tokugawa
bosanski: Tokugawa
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Edo mok-fú
한국어: 에도 막부
Bahasa Indonesia: Keshogunan Tokugawa
ქართული: ტოკუგავა
magyar: Edo-bakufu
Bahasa Melayu: Kesyogunan Tokugawa
Nederlands: Tokugawa-shogunaat
日本語: 江戸幕府
português: Xogunato Tokugawa
Simple English: Tokugawa shogunate
српски / srpski: Шогунат Токугава
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Šogunat Tokugawa
svenska: Tokugawa
татарча/tatarça: Tokugawa sögunatı
українська: Сьоґунат Едо
Tiếng Việt: Mạc phủ Tokugawa
文言: 江戶幕府
吴语: 江户幕府
粵語: 江戶幕府
中文: 江户幕府