Togo

Togolese Republic
République togolaise (French)
Motto: "Travail, Liberté, Patrie"[1] (French)
"Work, Liberty, Homeland"
Anthem: Salut à toi, pays de nos aïeux  (French)
"Hail to thee, land of our forefathers"
Location of  Togo  (dark blue) in the African Union  (light blue)
Location of  Togo  (dark blue)

in the African Union  (light blue)

Capital
and largest city
Lomé
6°7′N 1°13′E / 6°7′N 1°13′E / 6.117; 1.217
Official languagesFrench
Recognised national languagesEwe • Kabiyé • Yoruba
Other languagesMina • Dagomba
Ethnic groups 99% Ewe, Kabye, Tem, Gourma, and 33 other African groups
1% European, Syrio-Lebanese[2]
DemonymTogolese
GovernmentUnitary dominant-party presidential republic
• President
Faure Gnassingbé
Komi Sélom Klassou
LegislatureNational Assembly
Independence
• from France
27 April 1960
Area
• Total
56,785 km2 (21,925 sq mi) (123rd)
• Water (%)
4.2
Population
• 2017 estimate
7,965,055[2] (99th)
• 2010 census
6,337,000
• Density
125.9/km2 (326.1/sq mi) (93rde)
GDP (PPP)2017 estimate
• Total
$12.433 billion[3] (150th)
• Per capita
$1,468[3]
GDP (nominal)2017 estimate
• Total
$4.797 billion[3]
• Per capita
$621[3]
Gini (2011)46[4]
high
HDI (2017)Increase 0.503[5]
low · 165th
CurrencyWest African CFA franc (XOF)
Time zoneUTC+0 (GMT)
Driving sideright
Calling code+228
ISO 3166 codeTG
Internet TLD.tg
  1. Such as Ewe, Mina and Aja.
  2. Largest are the Ewe, Mina, Kotokoli Tem and CIA World Factbook – Togo)

Togo (/ (About this sound listen)), officially the Togolese Republic (French: République togolaise), is a country in West Africa bordered by Ghana to the west, Benin to the east and Burkina Faso to the north. The sovereign state extends south to the Gulf of Guinea, where its capital Lomé is located. Togo covers 57,000 square kilometres (22,008 square miles), making it one of the smallest countries in Africa, with a population of approximately 7.6 million.[6]

From the 11th to the 16th century, various tribes entered the region from all directions. From the 16th century to the 18th century, the coastal region was a major trading center for Europeans to search for slaves, earning Togo and the surrounding region the name "The Slave Coast". In 1884, Germany declared a region including present-day Togo as a protectorate called Togoland. After World War I, rule over Togo was transferred to France. Togo gained its independence from France in 1960.[2] In 1967, Gnassingbé Eyadéma led a successful military coup d'état after which he became president of an anti-communist, single-party state. Eventually in 1993, Eyadéma faced multiparty elections, which were marred by irregularities, and won the presidency three times. At the time of his death, Eyadéma was the longest-serving leader in modern African history, having been president for 38 years.[7] In 2005, his son Faure Gnassingbé was elected president.

Togo is a tropical, sub-Saharan nation, whose economy depends highly on agriculture, with a climate that provides good growing seasons. While the official language is French, many other languages are spoken in Togo, particularly those of the Gbe family. The largest religious group in Togo consists of those with indigenous beliefs, and there are significant Christian and Muslim minorities. Togo is a member of the United Nations, African Union, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone, Francophonie, and Economic Community of West African States.

History

Before colonization (-1884)

Archaeological finds indicate that ancient tribes were able to produce pottery and process iron. The name Togo is translated from the Ewe language as "land where lagoons lie". Not much is known of the period before arrival of the Portuguese in 1490. During the period from the 11th century to the 16th century, various tribes entered the region from all directions: the Ewé from the east, and the Mina and Gun from the west. Most of them settled in coastal areas.

The slave trade began in the 16th century, and for the next two hundred years the coastal region was a major trading centre for Europeans in search of slaves, earning Togo and the surrounding region the name "The Slave Coast".

Colonial era (1884–1960)

Togoland (R. Hellgrewe, 1908)

In 1884, a paper was signed at Togoville with the King Mlapa III, whereby Germany claimed a protectorate over a stretch of territory along the coast and gradually extended its control inland. Its borders were defined after the capture of hinterland by German forces and signing agreements with France and Britain. In 1905, this became the German colony of Togoland. The local population was forced to work, cultivate cotton, coffee and cocoa and pay high taxes. A railway and the port of Lomé were built for export of agricultural products. The Germans introduced modern techniques of cultivation of cocoa, coffee and cotton and developed the infrastructure.

During the First World War, Togoland was invaded by Britain and France, proclaiming the Anglo-French condominium. On 7 December 1916 the condominium collapsed and Togo was divided into British and French zones. 20 July 1922 Great Britain received the League of Nations mandate to govern the western part of Togo and France to govern the eastern part. In 1945, the country received the right to send three representatives to the French parliament.

After World War II, these mandates became UN Trust Territories. The residents of British Togoland voted to join the Gold Coast as part of the new independent nation of Ghana in 1957. French Togoland became an autonomous republic within the French Union in 1959, while France retained the right to control the defense, foreign relations and finances.

Independence to present day (1960–present)

The Togolese Republic was proclaimed on 27 April 1960. In the first presidential elections in 1961, Sylvanus Olympio became the first president, gaining 100% of the vote in elections boycotted by the opposition. On 9 April 1961 the Constitution of the Togolese Republic was adopted, according to which the supreme legislative body was the National Assembly of Togo.[citation needed]

In December 1961, leaders of opposition parties were arrested because they were accused of the preparation of an anti-government conspiracy. A decree was issued on the dissolution of the opposition parties. Olympio tried to reduce dependence on France by establishing cooperation with the United States, Great Britain and Germany. He also rejected efforts of French soldiers who were demobilized after the Algerian War and tried to get a position in the Togolese army. These factors eventually led to a military coup on 13 January 1963, during which he was assassinated by a group of soldiers under the direction of Sergeant Gnassingbé Eyadéma.[8] A State of emergency was declared in Togo.

The military handed over power to an interim government led by Nicolas Grunitzky. In May 1963 Grunitzky was elected President of the Republic. The new leadership pursued a policy of developing relations with France. His main aim was to dampen the divisions between north and south, promulgate a new constitution, and introduce a multiparty system.

Exactly four years later, on 13 January 1967, Eyadéma Gnassingbé overthrew Grunitzky in a bloodless coup and assumed the presidency. He created the Rally of the Togolese People Party, banned activities of other political parties and introduced a one-party system in November 1969. He was reelected in 1979 and 1986. In 1983, the privatization program launched and in 1991 other political parties were allowed. In 1993, the EU froze the partnership, describing Eyadema's re-election in 1993, 1998 and 2003, as a seizure of power. In April 2004, in Brussels, talks were held between the European Union and Togo on the resumption of cooperation.

Eyadéma Gnassingbé suddenly died on 5 February 2005 after 38 years in power, the longest occupation of any dictator in Africa. The military's immediate installation of his son, Faure Gnassingbé, as president provoked widespread international condemnation, except from France. Some democratically elected African leaders such as Abdoulaye Wade of Senegal and Olusegun Obasanjo of Nigeria supported the move, thereby creating a rift within the African Union.[9]

Gnassingbe left power and held elections, which he won two months later. The opposition declared that the election results were fraudulent. The events of 2005 led to questions regarding the government's commitment to democracy that had been made in an attempt to normalize relations with the EU, which cut off aid in 1993 due to questions about Togo's human rights situation. In addition, up to 400 people were killed in the violence surrounding the presidential elections, according to the UN. Around 40,000 Togolese fled to neighboring countries. Faure Gnassingbé was reelected in 2010 and 2015.

In late 2017, anti-government protests erupted in Togo, the biggest since ones after the 2005 election. They demand the resignation of Gnassingbé, who is part of a family they say has been in power too long. The UN has condemned the resulting crackdown by Togolese security forces, and Gambia's foreign minister, Ousainou Darboe, had to issue a correction after saying that Gnassingbé should resign.[10]

Other Languages
Acèh: Togo
адыгабзэ: Того
Afrikaans: Togo
Akan: Togo
Alemannisch: Togo
አማርኛ: ቶጎ
العربية: توغو
aragonés: Togo
arpetan: Togô
asturianu: Togu
azərbaycanca: Toqo
تۆرکجه: توقو
bamanankan: Togo
বাংলা: টোগো
Bahasa Banjar: Togo
Bân-lâm-gú: Togo
башҡортса: Того
беларуская: Тога
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Тога
भोजपुरी: टोगो
Bikol Central: Togo
български: Того
བོད་ཡིག: ཊོ་གོ
bosanski: Togo
brezhoneg: Togo
буряад: Того
català: Togo
Чӑвашла: Того
Cebuano: Togo
čeština: Togo
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Togo
chiShona: Togo
Cymraeg: Togo
dansk: Togo
davvisámegiella: Togo
Deutsch: Togo
ދިވެހިބަސް: ޓޯގޯ
dolnoserbski: Togo
eesti: Togo
Ελληνικά: Τόγκο
español: Togo
Esperanto: Togolando
estremeñu: Togu
euskara: Togo
eʋegbe: Togo
فارسی: توگو
Fiji Hindi: Togo
føroyskt: Togo
français: Togo
Frysk: Togo
Fulfulde: Togo
Gaeilge: Tóga
Gaelg: Yn Togo
Gagauz: Togo
Gàidhlig: Tògo
galego: Togo
ગુજરાતી: ટોગો
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Togo
хальмг: Того Орн
한국어: 토고
Hausa: Togo
հայերեն: Տոգո
हिन्दी: टोगो
hornjoserbsce: Togo
hrvatski: Togo
Ido: Togo
Igbo: Togo
Ilokano: Togo
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: টোগো
Bahasa Indonesia: Togo
Interlingue: Togo
Ирон: Того
isiZulu: ITogo
íslenska: Tógó
italiano: Togo
עברית: טוגו
Basa Jawa: Togo
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಟೊಗೊ
Kapampangan: Togo
ქართული: ტოგო
қазақша: Того
kernowek: Togo
Kinyarwanda: Togo
Kiswahili: Togo
Kongo: Togo
Kreyòl ayisyen: Togo
kurdî: Togo
Кыргызча: Того
кырык мары: Того
Ladino: Togo
Latina: Togum
latviešu: Togo
Lëtzebuergesch: Togo
lietuvių: Togas
Ligure: Tògo
Limburgs: Togo
lingála: Togo
Livvinkarjala: Togo
Luganda: Togo
lumbaart: Togo
magyar: Togo
македонски: Того
Malagasy: Togo
മലയാളം: ടോഗോ
Malti: Togo
मराठी: टोगो
მარგალური: ტოგო
مصرى: توجو
مازِرونی: توگو
Bahasa Melayu: Togo
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Togo
монгол: Того
မြန်မာဘာသာ: တိုဂိုနိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Togo
Dorerin Naoero: Togo
Nederlands: Togo
Nedersaksies: Togo
नेपाली: टोगो
नेपाल भाषा: टोगो
日本語: トーゴ
нохчийн: Того
Nordfriisk: Toogo
Norfuk / Pitkern: Togo
norsk: Togo
norsk nynorsk: Togo
Novial: Togo
occitan: Tògo
Oromoo: Toogoo
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Togo
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਟੋਗੋ
पालि: टोगो
پنجابی: ٹوگو
Papiamentu: Togo
Patois: Tuogo
Piemontèis: Tògo
Plattdüütsch: Togo
polski: Togo
português: Togo
Qaraqalpaqsha: Togo
qırımtatarca: Togo
română: Togo
rumantsch: Togo
Runa Simi: Tugu
русский: Того
саха тыла: Того
संस्कृतम्: टोगो
Sängö: Togö
sardu: Togo
Scots: Togo
Seeltersk: Togo
Sesotho: Togo
Sesotho sa Leboa: Togo
shqip: Togo
sicilianu: Togu
සිංහල: ටෝගෝ
Simple English: Togo
سنڌي: ٽوگو
SiSwati: IThogo
slovenčina: Togo
slovenščina: Togo
ślůnski: Togo
Soomaaliga: Togo
کوردی: تۆگۆ
српски / srpski: Того
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Togo
Basa Sunda: Togo
suomi: Togo
svenska: Togo
Tagalog: Togo
தமிழ்: டோகோ
Taqbaylit: Ṭugu
татарча/tatarça: Того
ትግርኛ: ቶጎ
тоҷикӣ: Того
Türkçe: Togo
Türkmençe: Togo
Twi: Togo
українська: Того
اردو: ٹوگو
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: توگو
vèneto: Togo
vepsän kel’: Togo
Tiếng Việt: Togo
Volapük: Togoän
Võro: Togo
文言: 多哥
Winaray: Togo
Wolof: Togóo
吴语: 多哥
Xitsonga: Togo
ייִדיש: טאגא
Yorùbá: Tógò
粵語: 多哥
Zazaki: Togo
žemaitėška: Togs
中文: 多哥
डोटेली: टोगो
Kabɩyɛ: Togo
Lingua Franca Nova: Togo