Titus

Titus
Tito, 70-81 ca, collez. albani.JPG
Bust of Emperor Titus, in the Capitoline Museum, Rome
Emperor of the Roman Empire
Reign23 June 79 – 13 September 81
PredecessorVespasian
SuccessorDomitian
Born(39-12-30)30 December 39
Rome
Died13 September 81(81-09-13) (aged 41)
Rome
BurialRome
SpouseArrecina Tertulla (c.62 AD;her death)
Marcia Furnilla (c.63–65 AD;divorced)
IssueJulia Flavia
Full name
Titus Flavius Vespasianus
Regnal name
Imperator Caesar Flavius Vespasianus Augustus
DynastyFlavian
FatherVespasian
MotherDomitilla
Roman imperial dynasties
Flavian dynasty
Chronology
Vespasian69 AD – 79 AD
Titus79 AD – 81 AD
Domitian81 AD – 96 AD
Family
Gens Flavia
Flavian tree
Category:Flavian dynasty
Succession
Preceded by
Year of the Four Emperors
Followed by
Nerva–Antonine dynasty


Titus (s/; Latin: Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus Augustus;[a] 30 December 39 – 13 September 81 AD) was Roman emperor from 79 to 81. A member of the Flavian dynasty, Titus succeeded his father Vespasian upon his death, thus becoming the first Roman emperor to come to the throne after his own biological father.

Prior to becoming emperor, Titus gained renown as a military commander, serving under his father in Judea during the First Jewish–Roman War. The campaign came to a brief halt with the death of emperor Nero in 68, launching Vespasian's bid for the imperial power during the Year of the Four Emperors. When Vespasian was declared Emperor on 1 July 69, Titus was left in charge of ending the Jewish rebellion. In 70, he besieged and captured Jerusalem, and destroyed the city and the Second Temple. For this achievement Titus was awarded a triumph: the Arch of Titus commemorates his victory to this day.

During his father's rule, Titus gained notoriety in Rome serving as prefect of the Praetorian Guard, and for carrying on a controversial relationship with the Jewish queen Berenice. Despite concerns over his character, Titus ruled to great acclaim following the death of Vespasian in 79, and was considered a good emperor by Suetonius and other contemporary historians.

As emperor, he is best known for completing the Colosseum and for his generosity in relieving the suffering caused by two disasters, the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79 and a fire in Rome in 80. After barely two years in office, Titus died of a fever on 13 September 81. He was deified by the Roman Senate and succeeded by his younger brother Domitian.

Early life

Titus was born in Rome, probably on 30 December 39 AD, as the eldest son of Titus Flavius Vespasianus—commonly known as Vespasian—and Domitilla the Elder.[1] He had one younger sister, Domitilla the Younger (born 45), and one younger brother, Titus Flavius Domitianus (born 51), commonly referred to as Domitian.

Family background

Marble bust of Titus from Utica (Tunisia), dated 79–81 AD, British Museum

Decades of civil war during the 1st century BC had contributed greatly to the demise of the old aristocracy of Rome, which was gradually replaced in prominence by a new provincial nobility during the early part of the 1st century.[2] One such family was the gens Flavia, which rose from relative obscurity to prominence in just four generations, acquiring wealth and status under the Emperors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Titus's great-grandfather, Titus Flavius Petro, had served as a centurion under Pompey during Caesar's Civil War. His military career ended in disgrace when he fled the battlefield at the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC.[3]

Nevertheless, Petro managed to improve his status by marrying the extremely wealthy Tertulla, whose fortune guaranteed the upwards mobility of Petro's son Titus Flavius Sabinus I, Titus's grandfather.[4] Sabinus himself amassed further wealth and possible equestrian status through his services as tax collector in Asia and banker in Helvetia. By marrying Vespasia Polla he allied himself to the more prestigious patrician gens Vespasia, ensuring the elevation of his sons Titus Flavius Sabinus II and Vespasian to the senatorial rank.[4]

The political career of Vespasian included the offices of quaestor, aedile and praetor, and culminated with a consulship in 51, the year Domitian was born. As a military commander, he gained early renown by participating in the Roman invasion of Britain in 43.[5] What little is known of Titus's early life has been handed down to us by Suetonius, who records that he was brought up at the imperial court in the company of Britannicus,[6] the son of emperor Claudius, who would be murdered by Nero in 55.

The story was even told that Titus was reclining next to Britannicus, the night he was murdered, and sipped of the poison that was handed to him.[6] Further details on his education are scarce, but it seems he showed early promise in the military arts and was a skilled poet and orator both in Greek and Latin.[7]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Titus (Keiser)
العربية: تيتوس
azərbaycanca: Tit
تۆرکجه: تیتوس
Bân-lâm-gú: Titus
беларуская: Ціт
български: Тит
bosanski: Tit
brezhoneg: Titus (impalaer)
čeština: Titus
corsu: Tittu
Cymraeg: Titus
Deutsch: Titus
eesti: Titus
Ελληνικά: Τίτος
español: Tito
euskara: Tito
فارسی: تیتوس
Gaeilge: Titus
한국어: 티투스
հայերեն: Տիտոս
hrvatski: Tit Flavije
Ido: Titus
Bahasa Indonesia: Titus Flavius Vespasianus
íslenska: Títus
עברית: טיטוס
ქართული: ტიტუსი
Kiswahili: Kaizari Titus
Kongo: Titus
latviešu: Tits
lietuvių: Titas
македонски: Тит
मराठी: टायटस
مصرى: تيتوس
Nederlands: Titus (keizer)
日本語: ティトゥス
norsk: Titus
norsk nynorsk: Titus av Romarriket
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Tit Flaviy Vespasian
پنجابی: ٹائٹس
português: Tito
Scots: Titus
Simple English: Titus
slovenčina: Titus
slovenščina: Tit Flavij
српски / srpski: Тит
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Tit
suomi: Titus
Tagalog: Titus
தமிழ்: டைட்டசு
اردو: تیتوس
Tiếng Việt: Titus
吴语: 题图斯
Yorùbá: Titu
粵語: 提圖斯
Zazaki: Titus
中文: 提圖斯