Tibetan Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (also Indo-Tibetan Buddhism) is the form of Buddhism named after the lands of Tibet where it is the dominant religion. It is also found in the regions surrounding the Himalayas (such as Bhutan, Ladakh, and Sikkim), much of Chinese Central Asia, the Southern Siberian regions such as Tuva, as well as in Mongolia.

Tibetan Buddhism is a form of Mahayana Buddhism stemming from the latest stages of Indian Buddhism (and so is also part of the tantric Vajrayana tradition). It thus preserves "the Tantric status quo of eighth-century India."[1] However, it also includes native Tibetan developments and practices. In the pre-modern era, Tibetan Buddhism spread outside of Tibet primarily due to the influence of the Mongol Yuan dynasty (1271–1368), founded by Kublai Khan, which ruled China, Mongolia and parts of Siberia. In the modern era, it has spread outside of Asia due to the efforts of the Tibetan diaspora.

Apart from classical Mahayana Buddhist practices like the six perfections, Tibetan Buddhism also includes Tantric practices, such as deity yoga and the Six Dharmas of Naropa. Its main goal is Buddhahood or rainbow body.[2] The main language of scriptural study in this tradition is classical Tibetan.

Tibetan Buddhism has four major schools, namely Nyingma, Kagyu, Sakya and Gelug. The Jonang is a smaller school, and the Rimé movement is a recent nonsectarian movement which cuts across the different schools. Each school is independent and has its own monastic institutions and leaders.


The native Tibetan term for Buddhism is "The Dharma of the insiders" (nang chos) or "The Buddha Dharma of the insiders" (nang pa sangs rgyas pa'i chos).[3][4] This is contrasted with other forms of organized religion, which are termed chos lugs (dharma system), for example, Christianity is termed Yi shu'i chos lugs (Jesus dharma system).[4]

Westerners unfamiliar with Tibetan Buddhism initially turned to China for an understanding. There the term used was Lamaism (literally, "doctrine of the lamas": lama jiao) to distinguish it from a then-traditional Chinese form (fo jiao). The term was taken up by western scholars including Hegel, as early as 1822.[5][6] Insofar as it implies a discontinuity between Indian and Tibetan Buddhism, the term has been discredited.[7]

Another term, "Vajrayāna" (Tib. dorje tegpa) is occasionally used mistakenly for Tibetan Buddhism. More accurately, Vajrayāna signifies a certain subset of practices and traditions which are not only part of Tibetan Buddhism, but also prominent in other Buddhist traditions.

In the west, the term "Indo-Tibetan Buddhism" has become current, in acknowledgement of its derivation from the latest stages of Buddhist development in northern India.[8]

Other Languages
العربية: بوذية تبتية
asturianu: Budismu tibetanu
azərbaycanca: Tibet buddizmi
Bân-lâm-gú: Se-chōng Hu̍t-kàu
Esperanto: Tibeta budhismo
한국어: 티베트 불교
Bahasa Indonesia: Agama Buddha di Tibet
latviešu: Lamaisms
lietuvių: Tibeto budizmas
မြန်မာဘာသာ: တိဗက်ဗုဒ္ဓဘာသာ
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Tibet Buddizmi
português: Budismo tibetano
română: Budism tibetan
Simple English: Tibetan Buddhism
slovenčina: Tibetský budhizmus
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Tibetanski budizam
Türkçe: Tibet Budizmi
Tiếng Việt: Phật giáo Tây Tạng
中文: 藏傳佛教