Tibet

Cultural/historical, (highlighted) depicted with various competing territorial claims.               "Greater Tibet" as claimed by Tibetan exile groups   Tibetan autonomous areas, as designated by China   Tibet Autonomous Region, within China Chinese-controlled, claimed by India as part of Aksai Chin Indian-controlled, parts claimed by China as South Tibet Other areas historically within the Tibetan cultural sphere
       "Greater Tibet" as claimed by Tibetan exile groups
 Tibetan autonomous areas, as designated by China
 Tibet Autonomous Region, within China
Chinese-controlled, claimed by India as part of Aksai Chin
Indian-controlled, parts claimed by China as South Tibet
Other areas historically within the Tibetan cultural sphere
Tibet
Tibet-dz-zh.svg
"Tibet" in the Tibetan (top) and Chinese (bottom) scripts
Chinese name
Chinese西藏
Literal meaning"Western Tsang"
Tibetan name
Tibetan བོད་

Tibet (t/ (About this soundlisten); Tibetan: བོད་, Lhasa dialect IPA: /pʰøː˨˧˩/; Chinese: 西藏; pinyin: Xīzàng) is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Inner Asia. It is the traditional homeland of the Tibetan people as well as some other ethnic groups such as Monpa, Tamang, Qiang, Sherpa, and Lhoba peoples and is now also inhabited by considerable numbers of Han Chinese and Hui people. Tibet is the highest region on Earth, with an average elevation of 4,900 metres (16,000 ft).[citation needed] The highest elevation in Tibet is Mount Everest, Earth's highest mountain, rising 8,848 m (29,029 ft) above sea level.

The Tibetan Empire emerged in the 7th century, but with the fall of the empire the region soon divided into a variety of territories. The bulk of western and central Tibet (Ü-Tsang) was often at least nominally unified under a series of Tibetan governments in Lhasa, Shigatse, or nearby locations; these governments were at various times under Mongol and Chinese overlordship. Thus Tibet remained a suzerainty of the Mongol and later Chinese rulers in Nanjing and Beijing, with reasonable autonomy given to the Tibetan leaders.[1] The eastern regions of Kham and Amdo often maintained a more decentralized indigenous political structure, being divided among a number of small principalities and tribal groups, while also often falling more directly under Chinese rule after the Battle of Chamdo; most of this area was eventually incorporated into the Chinese provinces of Sichuan and Qinghai. The current borders of Tibet were generally established in the 18th century.[2]

Following the Xinhai Revolution against the Qing dynasty in 1912, Qing soldiers were disarmed and escorted out of Tibet Area (Ü-Tsang). The region subsequently declared its independence in 1913 without recognition by the subsequent Chinese Republican government.[3] Later, Lhasa took control of the western part of Xikang, China. The region maintained its autonomy until 1951 when, following the Battle of Chamdo, Tibet became incorporated into the People's Republic of China, and the previous Tibetan government was abolished in 1959 after a failed uprising.[4] Today, China governs western and central Tibet as the Tibet Autonomous Region while the eastern areas are now mostly ethnic autonomous prefectures within Sichuan, Qinghai and other neighbouring provinces. There are tensions regarding Tibet's political status[5] and dissident groups that are active in exile.[6]Tibetan activists in Tibet have reportedly been arrested or tortured.[7]

The economy of Tibet is dominated by subsistence agriculture, though tourism has become a growing industry in recent decades. The dominant religion in Tibet is Tibetan Buddhism; in addition there is Bön, which is similar to Tibetan Buddhism,[8] and there are also Tibetan Muslims and Christian minorities. Tibetan Buddhism is a primary influence on the art, music, and festivals of the region. Tibetan architecture reflects Chinese and Indian influences. Staple foods in Tibet are roasted barley, yak meat, and butter tea.

Names

The Tibetan name for their land, Bod བོད་, means "Tibet" or "Tibetan Plateau", although it originally meant the central region[citation needed] around Lhasa, now known in Tibetan as Ü. The Standard Tibetan pronunciation of Bod, [pʰøʔ˨˧˨], is transcribed Bhö in Tournadre Phonetic Transcription, in the THL Simplified Phonetic Transcription and Poi in Tibetan pinyin. Some scholars believe the first written reference to Bod "Tibet" was the ancient Bautai people recorded in the Egyptian Greek works Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (1st century CE) and Geographia (Ptolemy, 2nd century CE),[9] itself from the Sanskrit form Bhauṭṭa of the Indian geographical tradition.[10]

The modern Standard Chinese exonym for the ethnic Tibetan region is Zangqu (Chinese: 藏区; pinyin: Zàngqū), which derives by metonymy from the Tsang region around Shigatse plus the addition of a Chinese suffix, 区 , which means "area, district, region, ward". Tibetan people, language, and culture, regardless of where they are from, are referred to as Zang (Chinese: ; pinyin: Zàng) although the geographical term Xīzàng is often limited to the Tibet Autonomous Region. The term Xīzàng was coined during the Qing dynasty in the reign of the Jiaqing Emperor (1796–1820) through the addition of a prefix meaning "west" (西 ) to Zang.

The best-known medieval Chinese name for Tibet is Tubo (Chinese: 吐蕃 also written as 土蕃 or 土番; pinyin: Tǔbō or Tǔfān). This name first appears in Chinese characters as 土番 in the 7th century (Li Tai) and as 吐蕃 in the 10th-century (Old Book of Tang describing 608–609 emissaries from Tibetan King Namri Songtsen to Emperor Yang of Sui). In the Middle Chinese spoken during that period, as reconstructed by William H. Baxter, 土番 was pronounced thux-phjon and 吐蕃 was pronounced thux-pjon (with the x representing tone).[11]

Other pre-modern Chinese names for Tibet include Wusiguo (Chinese: 烏斯國; pinyin: Wūsīguó; cf. Tibetan dbus, Ü, [wyʔ˨˧˨]), Wusizang (Chinese: 烏斯藏; pinyin: wūsīzàng, cf. Tibetan dbus-gtsang, Ü-Tsang), Tubote (Chinese: 圖伯特; pinyin: Túbótè), and Tanggute (Chinese: 唐古忒; pinyin: Tánggǔtè, cf. Tangut). American Tibetologist Elliot Sperling has argued in favor of a recent tendency by some authors writing in Chinese to revive the term Tubote (simplified Chinese: 图伯特; traditional Chinese: 圖伯特; pinyin: Túbótè) for modern use in place of Xizang, on the grounds that Tubote more clearly includes the entire Tibetan plateau rather than simply the Tibet Autonomous Region.[12]

The English word Tibet or Thibet dates back to the 18th century.[13] Historical linguists generally agree that "Tibet" names in European languages are loanwords from Semitic Ṭībat orTūbātt (طيبة، توبات) (טובּה, טובּת), itself deriving from Turkic Töbäd, literally: "The Heights" (plural of töbän).[14]

Other Languages
Alemannisch: Tibet
አማርኛ: ቲቤት
Ænglisc: Tibet
العربية: التبت
asturianu: Tíbet
azərbaycanca: Tibet
বাংলা: তিব্বত
Bân-lâm-gú: Se-chōng
беларуская: Тыбет
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Тыбэт
भोजपुरी: तिब्बत
български: Тибет
བོད་ཡིག: བོད་ཡུལ།
bosanski: Tibet
brezhoneg: Tibet
буряад: Түбэд
català: Tibet
Чӑвашла: Тибет
čeština: Tibet
Cymraeg: Tibet
dansk: Tibet
davvisámegiella: Tibet
Deutsch: Tibet
ཇོང་ཁ: བོད
eesti: Tiibet
Ελληνικά: Θιβέτ
español: Tíbet
euskara: Tibet
فارسی: تبت
Fiji Hindi: Tibet
føroyskt: Tibet
français: Tibet
Frysk: Tibet
Gaeilge: An Tibéid
Gàidhlig: Tibet
galego: Tíbet
ગુજરાતી: તિબેટ
хальмг: Төвд
한국어: 티베트
հայերեն: Տիբեթ
हिन्दी: तिब्बत
hrvatski: Tibet
Ido: Tibet
Ilokano: Tibet
interlingua: Tibet
Interlingue: Tibet
Ирон: Тибет
italiano: Tibet
עברית: טיבט
Basa Jawa: Tibet
Kabɩyɛ: Tibɛtii
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಟಿಬೆಟ್
Kapampangan: Tibet
ქართული: ტიბეტი
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: तिब्बत
қазақша: Тибет
Kinyarwanda: Tibeti
Kiswahili: Tibet
Kreyòl ayisyen: Tibet
Кыргызча: Тибет
Latina: Tibetum
latviešu: Tibeta
lietuvių: Tibetas
Lingua Franca Nova: Tibet
la .lojban.: tibet
magyar: Tibet
मैथिली: तिब्बत
македонски: Тибет
മലയാളം: തിബെത്ത്
मराठी: तिबेट
მარგალური: ტიბეტი
مصرى: تيبيت
مازِرونی: تبت
Bahasa Melayu: Tibet
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Câung-kṳ̆
монгол: Төвөд
မြန်မာဘာသာ: တိဗက်
Nederlands: Tibet (gebied)
नेपाली: तिब्बत
日本語: チベット
norsk: Tibet
norsk nynorsk: Tibet
occitan: Tibet
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਤਿੱਬਤ
Piemontèis: Tìbet
português: Tibete
Qaraqalpaqsha: Tibet
română: Tibet
rumantsch: Tibet
Runa Simi: Tibet
русиньскый: Тібет
русский: Тибет
саха тыла: Тибиэт
Scots: Tibet
sicilianu: Tibet
සිංහල: ටිබෙට්
سنڌي: تبت
slovenščina: Tibet
Soomaaliga: Tibet
српски / srpski: Тибет
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Tibet
suomi: Tiibet
svenska: Tibet
Tagalog: Tibet
தமிழ்: திபெத்து
татарча/tatarça: Тибет
తెలుగు: టిబెట్
ไทย: ทิเบต
Türkçe: Tibet
тыва дыл: Төвүт
українська: Тибет
اردو: تبت
Tiếng Việt: Tây Tạng
Võro: Tiibet
文言: 西藏
Winaray: Tibet
Yorùbá: Tibet
粵語: 藏區
Zazaki: Tibet
žemaitėška: Tėbets
中文: 藏区