Thirteen Colonies

Thirteen Colonies
Part of British America (1607-1776)
as
Colonies of England (1607–1707)
Colonies of Great Britain (1707–1776)
1732–1776


Flag of Great Britain (1707–1776)

The thirteen colonies (shown red) in 1775.
Capital Administered from London, England
Languages English, German, many indigenous languages
Religion Puritanism, Anglicanism, other Protestantism, Judaism, Roman Catholicism, Native American religion
Government Constitutional monarchy
Monarch
 •  1607–1625 James I & VI (first)
 •  1760–1783 George III (last)
History
 •  Roanoke Colony 1585
 •  Virginia Colony 1607
 •  New England 1620
 •  King Charles II charter for Rhode Island and Providence Plantations 1663
 •  Rupert's Land 1670
 •  Treaty of Utrecht 1713
 •  13th colony formed 1732
 •  Independence declared 1776
 •  Treaty of Paris 1783
Population
 •  1625 [1] est. 1,980 
 •  1775 [1] est. 2,400,000 
Currency Pound sterling,
colonial money,
bills of credit,
commodity money.
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Pre-colonial North America
New Netherland
United States
Today part of   United States

The Thirteen Colonies were a group of British colonies on the east coast of North America founded in the 17th and 18th centuries that declared independence in 1776 and formed the United States of America. The thirteen were (roughly north to south): Province of New Hampshire, Province of Massachusetts Bay, Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut Colony, Province of New York, Province of New Jersey, Province of Pennsylvania, Delaware Colony, Province of Maryland, Colony of Virginia, Province of North Carolina, Province of South Carolina, and Province of Georgia.

The Thirteen Colonies had very similar political, constitutional, and legal systems, and were dominated by Protestant English-speakers. They were part of Britain's possessions in the New World, which also included colonies in Canada and the Caribbean, as well as East and West Florida. In the 18th century, the British government operated its colonies under a policy of mercantilism, in which the central government administered its possessions for the economic benefit of the mother country. However, the Thirteen Colonies had a high degree of self-government and active local elections, and increasingly resisted London's demands for more control. In the 1750s, the colonies began collaborating with one another instead of dealing directly with Britain. These inter-colonial activities cultivated a sense of shared American identity and led to calls for protection of the colonists' " Rights as Englishmen", especially the principle of " no taxation without representation". Grievances with the British government led to the American Revolution, in which the colonies collaborated in forming a Continental Congress which declared independence in 1776 and fought the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) with the aid of France, the Dutch Republic, and Spain. [2] The American flag features thirteen horizontal stripes which represent these original thirteen colonies.

Predecessors prior to 1730

Dominion of New England
Created in 1685 by a decree from King James II that consolidated Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay Colony, Plymouth Colony, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Province of New York, East Jersey, and West Jersey into a single larger colony. The consolidation collapsed after the Glorious Revolution of 1688–89, and the nine former colonies re-established their separate identities in 1689.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
Settled in 1630 by Puritans from England. The colonial charter was revoked in 1684, and a new charter was issued in 1691 establishing an enlarged Province of Massachusetts Bay.
Province of Maine
Settled in 1622 (An attempt was made in 1607 to settle the Popham Colony in Sagadahoc, Maine (near present-day Phippsburg and Popham Beach State Park), but it was abandoned after only one year). The Massachusetts Bay Colony claimed the Maine territory in the 1650s, then limited to present-day southernmost Maine. Parts of Maine east of the Kennebec River were also part of New York in the second half of the 17th century. These areas were formally made part of the Province of Massachusetts Bay in the charter of 1691.
Plymouth Colony
Settled in 1620 by the Pilgrims. Plymouth was merged into the Province of Massachusetts Bay in the charter of 1691.
Saybrook Colony
Founded in 1635 and merged with Connecticut Colony in 1644.
New Haven Colony
Settled in late 1637. New Haven was absorbed by Connecticut Colony with the issuance of the Connecticut Charter in 1662, partly as royal punishment by King Charles II for harboring the judges who had sentenced King Charles I to death.
New Netherland
Extensive region centered about New Amsterdam at the southern tip of Manhattan Island. Prior to its capture by the English on September 6, 1664, it was administered by the Dutch West India Company on site since May 1624. There were earlier New Netherland settlements within this region. Including Fort Nassau (North River) established in 1614 or 1615 within present-day Albany beside the Hudson River. Which was the first formal Dutch presence in North America.
East Jersey and West Jersey
Settled as part of New Netherland in the 1610s. New Jersey was captured (along with New York) by English forces in 1664. New Jersey was divided into two separate colonies in 1674, which were reunited in 1702.
Colony of Virginia
The colony existed briefly during the 16th century, and then continuously from 1607. It was the first permanently settled English colony in North America.
Province of Carolina
Founded in 1663. Carolina colony was divided into two colonies in 1712: North Carolina and South Carolina. Both colonies became royal colonies in 1729.
Other Languages
Alemannisch: Dreizehn Kolonien
azərbaycanca: On üç koloniya
भोजपुरी: तेरह उपनिवेश
español: Trece Colonias
Esperanto: Dek tri Kolonioj
français: Treize colonies
한국어: 13개 식민지
Bahasa Indonesia: Tiga Belas Koloni
interlingua: Dece-Tres Colonias
italiano: Tredici colonie
Bahasa Melayu: Tiga Belas Jajahan
Mirandés: Treze Quelónias
Nederlands: Dertien koloniën
日本語: 13植民地
norsk bokmål: De tretten kolonier
norsk nynorsk: Dei tretten koloniane
português: Treze Colônias
Simple English: Thirteen Colonies
slovenčina: Trinásť kolónií
српски / srpski: Тринаест колонија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Trinaest kolonija
Türkçe: On Üç Koloni