Theobroma cacao

Theobroma cacao
Matadecacao.jpg
Cacao fruits on the tree
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom:Plantae
Clade:Tracheophytes
Clade:Angiosperms
Clade:Eudicots
Clade:Rosids
Order:Malvales
Family:Malvaceae
Genus:Theobroma
Species:
T. cacao
Binomial name
Theobroma cacao
Synonyms
  • Cacao minar Gaertn.
  • Cacao minus Gaertn.
  • Cacao sativa Aubl.
  • Cacao theobroma Tussac
  • Theobroma cacao f. leiocarpum (Bernoulli) Ducke
  • Theobroma cacao subsp. leiocarpum (Bernoulli) Cuatrec.
  • Theobroma cacao var. leiocarpum (Bernoulli) Cif.
  • Theobroma cacao subsp. sativa (Aubl.) León
  • Theobroma cacao var. typica Cif.
  • Theobroma caribaea Sweet
  • Theobroma integerrima Stokes
  • Theobroma kalagua De Wild.
  • Theobroma leiocarpum Bernoulli
  • Theobroma pentagonum Bernoulli
  • Theobroma saltzmanniana Bernoulli
  • Theobroma sapidum Pittier
  • Theobroma sativa (Aubl.) Lign. & Le Bey
  • Theobroma sativa var. leucosperma A. Chev.
  • Theobroma sativa var. melanosperma A. Chev.
  • Theobroma sativum (Aubl.) Lign. & Bey
Closed and open blossom and fruits on the trunk of Theobroma cacao (ÖBG Bayreuth)
Theobroma cacao
Theobroma cacao

Theobroma cacao, also called the cacao tree and the cocoa tree, is a small (4–8 m (13–26 ft) tall) evergreen tree in the family Malvaceae,[1][2] native to the deep tropical regions of Mesoamerica. Its seeds, cocoa beans, are used to make chocolate liquor, cocoa solids, cocoa butter and chocolate.[3]

Floral diagram showing partial inflorescence

Description

Leaves are alternate, entire, unlobed, 10–40 cm (3.9–15.7 in) long and 5–20 cm (2.0–7.9 in) broad.

The flowers are produced in clusters directly on the trunk and older branches; this is known as cauliflory. The flowers are small, 1–2 cm (0.39–0.79 in) diameter, with pink calyx. The floral formula, used to represent the structure of a flower using numbers, is ✶ K5 C5 A(5°+5²) G(5).[4] While many of the world's flowers are pollinated by bees (Hymenoptera) or butterflies/moths (Lepidoptera), cacao flowers are pollinated by tiny flies, Forcipomyia midges in the subfamily Forcipomyiinae.[5][6] Using the natural pollinator Forcipomyia midges for Theobroma cacao was shown to have more fruit production than using artificial pollinators.[6] The fruit, called a cacao pod, is ovoid, 15–30 cm (5.9–11.8 in) long and 8–10 cm (3.1–3.9 in) wide, ripening yellow to orange, and weighs about 500 g (1.1 lb) when ripe. The pod contains 20 to 60 seeds, usually called "beans", embedded in a white pulp. The seeds are the main ingredient of chocolate, while the pulp is used in some countries to prepare refreshing juice, smoothies, jelly, and disambiguation needed][further explanation needed].[7] Usually discarded until practices changed in the 21st century, the fermented pulp may be distilled into an alcoholic beverage.[8] Each seed contains a significant amount of fat (40–50%) as cocoa butter. The fruit's active constituent is the stimulant theobromine, a compound similar to caffeine.[9]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Kakaoboom
العربية: كاكاو (شجرة)
asturianu: Theobroma cacao
Avañe'ẽ: Kuvuasu
azərbaycanca: Kakao ağacı
Bali: Coklat
বাংলা: কোকোয়া
Bân-lâm-gú: Chi-ku-la̍t-châng
беларуская: Какава
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Какава
Bikol Central: Kakaw
български: Какаово дърво
bosanski: Kakaovac
català: Cacau
Cebuano: Kakaw
dansk: Kakao
Deutsch: Kakaobaum
Ελληνικά: Κακαόδεντρο
español: Theobroma cacao
Esperanto: Theobroma cacao
euskara: Kakao arbola
français: Cacaoyer
Gaeilge: Cócó
galego: Cacao
Gĩkũyũ: Cocoa
한국어: 카카오
Hausa: Koko
հայերեն: Կակաո
hornjoserbsce: Prawy kakawowc
Bahasa Indonesia: Kakao
interlingua: Theobroma cacao
íslenska: Kakó
italiano: Theobroma cacao
עברית: קקאו (עץ)
Jawa: Kakao
Kapampangan: Kako
ქართული: კაკაო
қазақша: Какао
Kiswahili: Mkakao
Kreyòl ayisyen: Kakawo
kurdî: Kakao
Кыргызча: Какао
latviešu: Kakaokoks
lingála: Kaukau
македонски: Какао
മലയാളം: കൊക്കോ
मराठी: कोको
მარგალური: კაკაო
مصرى: كاكاو
Bahasa Melayu: Koko
Mirandés: Cacau
монгол: Какаоны мод
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ကကေးအိုပင်
Nāhuatl: Cacahuacuahuitl
Nederlands: Cacaoboom
Nedersaksies: Kakouboom
日本語: カカオ
Napulitano: Cacavo
Nordfriisk: Kakaobuum
norsk: Kakaotre
norsk nynorsk: Kakaotre
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Kakao
پنجابی: کوکو رکھ
Picard: Caco
português: Cacau
Runa Simi: Kakaw
русский: Какао
Simple English: Cacao tree
slovenčina: Kakaovník pravý
српски / srpski: Какаовац
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Kakaovac
Sunda: Kakao
suomi: Kaakaopuu
svenska: Kakao
Tagalog: Kakaw
தமிழ்: கொக்கோ
lea faka-Tonga: Koko
Türkçe: Kakao
українська: Какао
Tiếng Việt: Cacao
Winaray: Kakao
吴语: 可可树
ייִדיש: קאקאא בוים
粵語: 唂咕樹
中文: 可可樹