Thebes, Egypt

Thebes
Waset
Θῆβαι
Decorated pillars of the temple at Karnac, Thebes, Egypt. Co Wellcome V0049316.jpg
Pillars of the Great Hypostyle Hall
Thebes, Egypt is located in Egypt
Thebes, Egypt
Shown within Egypt
LocationLuxor, Luxor Governorate, Egypt
RegionUpper Egypt
Coordinates25°43′14″N 32°36′37″E / 25°43′14″N 32°36′37″E / 25.72056; 32.61028
TypeSettlement
Official nameAncient Thebes with its Necropolis
TypeCultural
CriteriaI, III, VI
Designated1979 (3rd 87
RegionArab States

Thebes (Ancient Greek: Θῆβαι, Thēbai), known to the ancient Egyptians as Waset, was an ancient Egyptian city located along the Nile about 800 kilometers (500 mi) south of the Mediterranean. Its ruins lie within the modern Egyptian city of Luxor. Thebes was the main city of the fourth Upper Egyptian nome (Sceptre nome) and was the capital of Egypt for long periods during the Middle Kingdom and New Kingdom eras. It was close to Nubia and the Eastern Desert, with its valuable mineral resources and trade routes. It was a cult center and the most venerated city of ancient Egypt during its heyday. The site of Thebes includes areas on both the eastern bank of the Nile, where the temples of Karnak and Luxor stand and where the city proper was situated; and the western bank, where a necropolis of large private and royal cemeteries and funerary complexes can be found.

Toponymy

R19
wꜣs.t
"City of the Scepter"[1]
in hieroglyphs
R19t
niwt
wꜣs.t
"City of the Scepter"
in hieroglyphs
niwt
t Z1
M24t
niw.t rs.t
"Southern City"[2]
in hieroglyphs
O28nw
niwt
Sma
iwnw-sm’
"Heliopolis of the South"[3]
in hieroglyphs

The Egyptian name for Thebes was wꜣs.t, "City of the wꜣs", the sceptre of the pharaohs, a long staff with an animal's head and a forked base. From the end of the New Kingdom, Thebes was known in Egyptian as niwt-'imn, the "City of Amun", the chief of the Theban Triad of deities whose other members were Mut and Khonsu. This name of Thebes appears in the Bible as the "Nōʼ ʼĀmôn" (נא אמון) in the Book of Nahum[4] and also as "No" (נא) mentioned in the Book of Ezekiel[5] and Jeremiah.[6][7]

Thebes is the latinised form of Koinē Greek: Θῆβαι, the hellenized form of the Demotic Egyptian ta Pe, from earlier ta Opet.[citation needed] This was the local name not for the city itself but for the Karnak temple complex on the northeast bank of the city. As early as Homer's Iliad,[8] the Greeks distinguished the Egyptian Thebes as "Thebes of the Hundred Gates" (Θῆβαι ἑκατόμπυλοι, Thēbai hekatómpyloi) or "Hundred-Gated Thebes", as opposed to the "Thebes of the Seven Gates" (Θῆβαι ἑπτάπυλοι, Thēbai heptapyloi) in Boeotia, Greece.[n 1]

In the interpretatio graeca, Amun was rendered as Zeus Ammon. The name was therefore translated into Greek as Diospolis, "City of Zeus". To distinguish it from the numerous other cities by this name, it was known as the "Great Diospolis" (Διόσπολις Μεγάλη, Dióspolis Megálē; Latin: Diospolis Magna). The Greek names came into wider use after the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great, when the country came to be ruled by the Macedonian Ptolemaic dynasty.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Thebe, Egipte
አማርኛ: ጤቤስ
العربية: طيبة (مصر)
azərbaycanca: Teben
беларуская: Фівы (Егіпет)
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Тэбы (Эгіпет)
български: Тива (Египет)
bosanski: Teba (Egipat)
brezhoneg: Teba (Egipt)
čeština: Veset
Ελληνικά: Θήβαι Αιγύπτου
español: Tebas (Egipto)
Esperanto: Tebo (Egiptio)
Gaeilge: An Téibh
hrvatski: Teba (Egipat)
Bahasa Indonesia: Thebes, Mesir
italiano: Tebe (Egitto)
қазақша: Фивы (Египет)
lietuvių: Tėbai (Egiptas)
magyar: Théba
മലയാളം: തീബ്സ്
مصرى: طيبه
Bahasa Melayu: Thebes, Mesir
Nāhuatl: Tebas
Nederlands: Thebe (Egypte)
日本語: テーベ
occitan: Oaset
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Fiva (shahar)
Plattdüütsch: Theben (Ägypten)
polski: Teby (Egipt)
português: Tebas (Egito)
română: Teba, Egipt
русский: Фивы (Египет)
Simple English: Thebes, Egypt
slovenčina: Téby (Egypt)
slovenščina: Tebe, Egipt
српски / srpski: Теба (Египат)
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Teba (Egipat)
Tagalog: Thebes
தமிழ்: தீபை
ไทย: ธีบส์
Türkçe: Teb, Mısır
українська: Фіви (Єгипет)
اردو: طیبہ
Tiếng Việt: Thebes, Ai Cập