Thailand

Kingdom of Thailand

  • ราชอาณาจักรไทย (Thai)
  • Ratcha-anachak Thai
Anthem: Phleng Chat Thai
(English: "Thai National Anthem")


Royal anthemSansoen Phra Barami
(English: "Glorify His prestige")
Location of  Thailand  (green) in Association of Southeast Asian Nations  (dark grey)  –  [Legend]
Location of  Thailand  (green)

in Association of Southeast Asian Nations  (dark grey)  –  [Legend]

Location of Thailand
Capital
and largest city
Bangkok
13°45′N 100°29′E / 13°45′N 100°29′E / 13.750; 100.483
Official languagesThai[1]
Spoken languages
Ethnic groups
(2009;[6] 2011[3]:95–99)
Religion
Demonym(s)Thai
Siamese (archaic)
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy under a military junta
• Monarch
Maha Vajiralongkorn
Prayut Chan-o-cha
LegislatureNational Legislative Assembly (acting as National Assembly)
Senate
House of Representatives
Formation
1238–1448
1351–1767
1768–1782
6 April 1782
24 June 1932
6 April 2017
Area
• Total
513,120 km2 (198,120 sq mi) (50th)
• Water (%)
0.4 (2,230 km2)
Population
• 2016 estimate
68,863,514[8] (20th)
• 2010 census
64,785,909[9]
• Density
132.1/km2 (342.1/sq mi) (88th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$1.311 trillion[10]
• Per capita
$18,944[10]
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$490 billion[11]
• Per capita
$7,084[11]
Gini (2013)37.8[12]
medium
HDI (2017)Increase 0.755[13]
high · 83rd
CurrencyBaht (฿) (THB)
Time zoneUTC+7 (ICT)
Driving sideleft
Calling code+66
ISO 3166 codeTH
Internet TLD

Thailand (Thai: ประเทศไทย) (d/ TY-land), officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam (Thai: สยาม), is a country at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces. At 513,120 km2 (198,120 sq mi) and over 68 million people, Thailand is the world's 50th largest country by total area and the 21st-most-populous country. The capital and largest city is Bangkok, a special administrative area. Thailand is bordered to the north by Myanmar and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the west by the Andaman Sea and the southern extremity of Myanmar. Its maritime boundaries include Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast, and Indonesia and India on the Andaman Sea to the southwest. Although nominally a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, the most recent coup in 2014 established a de facto military dictatorship.

Tai peoples migrated from southwestern China to mainland Southeast Asia from the 11th century; the oldest known mention of their presence in the region by the exonym Siamese dates to the 12th century. Various Indianised kingdoms such as the Mon, the Khmer Empire and Malay states ruled the region, competing with Thai states such as Ngoenyang, the Sukhothai Kingdom, Lan Na and the Ayutthaya Kingdom, which rivaled each other. European contact began in 1511 with a Portuguese diplomatic mission to Ayutthaya, one of the great powers in the region. Ayutthaya reached its peak during cosmopolitan Narai's reign (1656–88), gradually declining thereafter until being ultimately destroyed in 1767 in a war with Burma. Taksin quickly reunified the fragmented territory and established the short-lived Thonburi Kingdom. He was succeeded in 1782 by Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke, the first monarch of the Chakri dynasty and founder of the Rattanakosin Kingdom, which lasted into the early 20th century.

Through the 18th and 19th centuries, Siam faced pressure from France and the United Kingdom, including forced concessions of territory, but nevertheless it remained the only Southeast Asian country to avoid direct Western rule. Following a bloodless revolution in 1932, Siam became a constitutional monarchy and changed its official name to "Thailand". While it joined the Allies in World War I, Thailand was an Axis satellite in World War II. In the late 1950s, a military coup revived the monarchy's historically influential role in politics. Thailand became a major ally of the United States and played a key anti-communist role in the region. Apart from a brief period of parliamentary democracy in the mid 1970s, Thailand has periodically alternated between democracy and military rule. In the 21st century, Thailand endured a political crisis that culminated in two coups and the establishment of its current and 20th constitution by the military junta.

Thailand is a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy under a military junta. Thailand is a founding member of Association of Southeast Asian Nations and remains a major ally of the US.[14][15] Despite its comparatively sporadic changes in leadership, it is considered a regional power in Southeast Asia and a middle power in global affairs.[16] With a high level of human development, the second largest economy in Southeast Asia, and the 20th largest by PPP, Thailand is classified as a newly industrialized economy; manufacturing, agriculture, and tourism are leading sectors of the economy.[17][18]

Etymology

Thailand (d/ TY-land or d/ TY-lənd;[19] Thai: ประเทศไทย, RTGSPrathet Thai, pronounced [pratʰêːt tʰaj] (About this soundlisten)), officially the Kingdom of Thailand (Thai: ราชอาณาจักรไทย, RTGSRatcha-anachak Thai  [râːtt͡ɕʰaʔaːnaːt͡ɕàk tʰaj] (About this soundlisten), Chinese: 泰国), formerly known as Siam (Thai: สยาม, RTGSSayam  [sajǎːm]), is a country at the centre of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia.

Etymology of "Siam"

The country has always been called Mueang Thai by its citizens. By outsiders prior to 1949, it was usually known by the exonym Siam (Thai: สยาม RTGSSayam, pronounced [sajǎːm], also spelled Siem, Syâm, or Syâma).[citation needed] The word Siam may have originated from Pali (suvaṇṇabhūmi, “land of gold”) or Sanskrit श्याम (śyāma, “dark”) or Mon ရာမည(rhmañña, “stranger”). The names Shan and A-hom seem to be variants of the same word. The word Śyâma is possibly not its origin, but a learned and artificial distortion.[clarification needed][20] Another theory is the name derives from Chinese: "Ayutthaya emerged as a dominant centre in the late fourteenth century. The Chinese called this region Xian, which the Portuguese converted into Siam." (Baker and Phongpaichit, A History of Thailand, 8) A further possibility is that Mon-speaking peoples migrating south called themselves 'syem' as do the autochthonous Mon-Khmer-speaking inhabitants of the Malay Peninsula.[citation needed]

SPPM Mongkut Rex Siamensium, King Mongkut's signature

The signature of King Mongkut (r. 1851–1868) reads SPPM (Somdet Phra Poramenthra Maha) Mongkut King of the Siamese, giving the name "Siam" official status until 24 June 1939 when it was changed to Thailand.[21] Thailand was renamed to Siam from 1946 to 1948, after which it again reverted to Thailand.

Etymology of "Thailand"

According to George Cœdès, the word Thai (ไทย) means "free man" in the Thai language, "differentiating the Thai from the natives encompassed in Thai society as serfs".[22] A famous Thai scholar argued that Thai (ไท) simply means "people" or "human being", since his investigation shows that in some rural areas the word "Thai" was used instead of the usual Thai word "khon" (คน) for people.[23] According to Michel Ferlus, the ethnonyms Thai/Tai (or Thay/Tay) would have evolved from the etymon *k(ə)ri: 'human being' through the following chain: *kəri: > *kəli: > *kədi:/*kədaj > *di:/*daj > *dajA (Proto-Southwestern Tai) > tʰajA2 (in Siamese and Lao) or > tajA2 (in the other Southwestern and Central Tai languages classified by Li Fangkuei).[24] Michel Ferlus' work is based on some simple rules of phonetic change observable in the Sinosphere and studied for the most part by William H. Baxter (1992).[25]

While Thai people will often refer to their country using the polite form prathet Thai (Thai: ประเทศไทย), they most commonly use the more colloquial term mueang Thai (Thai: เมืองไทย) or simply Thai; the word mueang, archaically referring to a city-state, is commonly used to refer to a city or town as the centre of a region. Ratcha Anachak Thai (Thai: ราชอาณาจักรไทย) means "kingdom of Thailand" or "kingdom of Thai". Etymologically, its components are: ratcha (Sanskrit: राजन्, rājan, "king, royal, realm") ; -ana- (Pali āṇā "authority, command, power", itself from the Sanskrit आज्ञा, ājñā, of the same meaning) -chak (from Sanskrit चक्र cakra- "wheel", a symbol of power and rule). The Thai National Anthem (Thai: เพลงชาติ), written by Luang Saranupraphan during the extremely patriotic 1930s, refers to the Thai nation as prathet Thai (Thai: ประเทศไทย). The first line of the national anthem is: prathet thai ruam lueat nuea chat chuea thai (Thai: ประเทศไทยรวมเลือดเนื้อชาติเชื้อไทย), "Thailand is the unity of Thai flesh and blood."

Other Languages
Acèh: Muang Thai
Адыгэбзэ: Тайлэнд
адыгабзэ: Тайланд
Afrikaans: Thailand
Alemannisch: Thailand
አማርኛ: ታይላንድ
Ænglisc: Thailand
العربية: تايلاند
aragonés: Tailandia
arpetan: Tayilande
অসমীয়া: থাইলেণ্ড
asturianu: Tailandia
Avañe'ẽ: Tailandia
azərbaycanca: Tailand
تۆرکجه: تایلند
Bahasa Banjar: Thailand
Bân-lâm-gú: Thài-kok
Basa Banyumasan: Thailand
башҡортса: Таиланд
беларуская: Тайланд
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Тайлянд
भोजपुरी: थाइलैंड
Bikol Central: Tailandya
Bislama: Thailand
български: Тайланд
Boarisch: Thailand
བོད་ཡིག: ཐའི་ལེན།
bosanski: Tajland
brezhoneg: Thailand
буряад: Тайланд
català: Tailàndia
Чӑвашла: Таиланд
Cebuano: Tayland
čeština: Thajsko
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Tailandia
Chi-Chewa: Thailand
chiShona: Thailand
chiTumbuka: Thailand
Cymraeg: Gwlad Tai
dansk: Thailand
davvisámegiella: Thaieana
Deutsch: Thailand
ދިވެހިބަސް: ސިޔާމު
dolnoserbski: Thailandska
डोटेली: थाइल्याण्ड
eesti: Tai
Ελληνικά: Ταϊλάνδη
español: Tailandia
Esperanto: Tajlando
estremeñu: Tailándia
euskara: Thailandia
eʋegbe: Thailand
فارسی: تایلند
Fiji Hindi: Thailand
føroyskt: Tailand
français: Thaïlande
Frysk: Tailân
Fulfulde: Tailannde
furlan: Tailandie
Gaeilge: An Téalainn
Gagauz: Tailand
galego: Tailandia
ГӀалгӀай: Таиланд
贛語: 泰國
Gĩkũyũ: Thailand
ગુજરાતી: થાઇલેન્ડ
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: थायलंड
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Thai-koet
한국어: 태국
Hausa: Thailand
Hawaiʻi: Tailani
հայերեն: Թաիլանդ
हिन्दी: थाईलैण्ड
hornjoserbsce: Thailandska
hrvatski: Tajland
Ilokano: Tailandia
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: টাইলান্ডিয়া
Bahasa Indonesia: Thailand
interlingua: Thailanda
Interlingue: Thailand
Iñupiak: Thailand
Ирон: Таиланд
íslenska: Taíland
italiano: Thailandia
עברית: תאילנד
Basa Jawa: Tanah Thai
Kabɩyɛ: Tayilandɩ
kalaallisut: Thailandi
Kapampangan: Tailandya
ქართული: ტაილანდი
kaszëbsczi: Tajlandiô
қазақша: Тайланд
kernowek: Pow Tay
Kinyarwanda: Tayilande
Kiswahili: Uthai
коми: Таиланд
Kongo: Thailand
Kreyòl ayisyen: Tayilann
kurdî: Taylenda
Кыргызча: Тайланд
لۊری شومالی: تایلند
Latina: Thailandia
latviešu: Taizeme
Lëtzebuergesch: Thailand
лезги: Таиланд
lietuvių: Tailandas
Ligure: Thailandia
Limburgs: Thailand
lingála: Thailandi
Lingua Franca Nova: Tai
Livvinkarjala: Thaimua
la .lojban.: tais
lumbaart: Thailandia
magyar: Thaiföld
मैथिली: थाइल्याण्ड
македонски: Тајланд
Malagasy: Tailandy
मराठी: थायलंड
მარგალური: ტაილანდი
مازِرونی: تایلند
Bahasa Melayu: Thailand
Baso Minangkabau: Thailand
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Tái-guók
Mirandés: Tailándia
монгол: Тайланд
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ထိုင်းနိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Taitlalpan
Dorerin Naoero: Thailand
Nederlands: Thailand
Nedersaksies: Thailaand
नेपाली: थाइल्याण्ड
नेपाल भाषा: थाइल्यान्द
日本語: タイ王国
нохчийн: Таиланд
Nordfriisk: Thailun
Norfuk / Pitkern: Tailan
norsk: Thailand
norsk nynorsk: Thailand
Novial: Tailande
occitan: Tailàndia
олык марий: Таиланд
Oromoo: Taayilaand
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Tailand
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਥਾਈਲੈਂਡ
पालि: थाइलैंड
پنجابی: تھائی لینڈ
Papiamentu: Thailand
پښتو: تايلنډ
Patois: Tailan
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ថៃ
Picard: Thaïlinde
Piemontèis: Thailandia
Tok Pisin: Tailan
Plattdüütsch: Thailand
polski: Tajlandia
português: Tailândia
Qaraqalpaqsha: Tayland
qırımtatarca: Tayland
română: Thailanda
Runa Simi: Thaysuyu
русиньскый: Таїланд
русский: Таиланд
саха тыла: Тайлаан
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱛᱷᱟᱭᱞᱮᱱᱰ
Gagana Samoa: Taialani
संस्कृतम्: थैलेण्ड्
Sängö: Tailânde
Scots: Thailand
Seeltersk: Thailound
shqip: Tajlanda
sicilianu: Thailandia
Simple English: Thailand
SiSwati: IThayilandi
slovenčina: Thajsko
slovenščina: Tajska
ślůnski: Tajlandyjo
Soomaaliga: Tayland
کوردی: تایلەند
Sranantongo: Taikondre
српски / srpski: Тајланд
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Tajland
Basa Sunda: Thailand
suomi: Thaimaa
svenska: Thailand
Tagalog: Thailand
Taqbaylit: Tayland
tarandíne: Thailandie
татарча/tatarça: Таиланд
తెలుగు: థాయిలాండ్
tetun: Tailándia
тоҷикӣ: Таиланд
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᏔᏯᎴᏂ
Tsetsêhestâhese: Thailand
Türkçe: Tayland
Türkmençe: Taýland
удмурт: Таиланд
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Thailand
українська: Таїланд
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: تايلاند
Vahcuengh: Daigoz
vèneto: Thailandia
vepsän kel’: Tailand
Tiếng Việt: Thái Lan
Volapük: Tayän
Võro: Tai
walon: Taylande
文言: 泰國
West-Vlams: Thailand
Winaray: Thailand
Wolof: Taaylaand
吴语: 泰国
Xitsonga: Thailand
ייִדיש: טיילאנד
Yorùbá: Tháílàndì
粵語: 泰國
Zazaki: Taylanda
Zeêuws: Thailand
žemaitėška: Tailands
中文: 泰国