Thailand

Kingdom of Thailand
ราชอาณาจักรไทย (Thai)
Ratcha-anachak Thai
Anthem: Phleng Chat Thai
(English: "Thai National Anthem")
Royal anthemSansoen Phra Barami
(English: "Glorify His prestige")
Location of  Thailand  (green)in ASEAN  (dark grey)  –  [Legend]
Location of  Thailand  (green)

in ASEAN  (dark grey)  –  [Legend]

Location of Thailand
Capital
and largest city
Bangkok
13°45′N 100°29′E / 13°45′N 100°29′E / 13.750; 100.483
Official languagesThai[1]
Spoken languages
Ethnic groups (2009;[6] 2011[3]:95–99)
Religion
DemonymThai
Siamese (archaic)
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy under a military junta
• Monarch
Maha Vajiralongkorn
Prayut Chan-o-cha
LegislatureNational Legislative Assembly (acting as National Assembly)
Formation
1238–1448
1351–1767
1768–1782
6 April 1782
24 June 1932
6 April 2017
Area
• Total
513,120 km2 (198,120 sq mi) (50th)
• Water (%)
0.4 (2,230 km2)
Population
• 2016 estimate
68,863,514[8] (20th)
• 2010 census
64,785,909[9]
• Density
132.1/km2 (342.1/sq mi) (88th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$1.296 trillion[10]
• Per capita
$18,734[10]
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$514.700 billion[11]
• Per capita
$7,588[11]
Gini (2013)37.8[12]
medium
HDI (2015)Increase 0.740[13]
high · 87th
CurrencyBaht (฿) (THB)
Time zoneICT (UTC+7)
Drives on theleft
Calling code+66
ISO 3166 codeTH
Internet TLD

Thailand (d/ TY-land), officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces. At 513,120 km2 and over 68 million people, Thailand is the world's 50th largest country by total area and the 21st-most-populous country. The capital and largest city is Bangkok, a special administrative area. Thailand is bordered to the north by Myanmar and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the west by the Andaman Sea and the southern extremity of Myanmar. Its maritime boundaries include Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast, and Indonesia and India on the Andaman Sea to the southwest. Even though constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy form of government was established in 1932, the most recent coup d'état in 2014 made Thailand currently a de facto military dictatorship.

Tai peoples migrated from southwestern China to mainland Southeast Asia since the 11th century. The oldest known mention of their presence in the region by the exonym Siamese is in a 12th-century inscription at the Angkor Wat. Various Indianised kingdoms such as the Mon, the Khmer Empire and Malay states ruled the region, competing with Thai states such as Ngoenyang, the Sukhothai Kingdom, Lan Na and the Ayutthaya Kingdom, which rivalled each other. Before the end of the 15th century, Ayutthaya Kingdom was the new great power in the region. Europeans contact began with a Portuguese diplomatic mission to Ayutthaya in 1511. During cosmopolitan Narai's reign (1656–88), Ayutthaya was very prosperous and Europeans recognized it as one of the greatest kingdoms in the region. However, Ayutthaya then gradually declined and was ultimately destroyed in 1767. Taksin quickly unified the fragmented territory and crowned king of short-lived Thonburi Kingdom. In his final years, he and his sons was executed by his companion Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke, the first monarch of reigning Chakri dynasty and founder of Rattanakosin Kingdom in 1782.

The ensuing centuries saw colonial powers pressure on Siam, but remained the only South East Asian country not colonized by the West. The country was modernized and centralized during Chulalongkorn's reign (1868–1910). Siam joined the Allies in World War I. Bloodless Siamese revolution of 1932 changed the kingdom into constitutional monarchy. In the 1930s, the military dominated the politics and the country turned into a fascism. Thailand allied with Japan during Thailand in World War II but most Allied powers did not accept Thai declaration of war. Thailand allied with the United States and led anti-communist role in the region. Sarit's coup and premiership revived the monarchy's role in politics. Popular uprising in 1973 was a result of internal conflict Thailand and leads to a brief period of parliamentary democracy which ended in 1976. Thailand is still considered a "partial democracy" for many decades. Since the 2000s seen the country pitted in a political crisis between supporters and opponents of ex-Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra, with two coups, most recently in 2014. Its current and 20th constitution was ratified on April 6, 2017, during military junta's watch.

Thailand is a founding member of ASEAN and a long-time allied of the United States. Thailand is considered a regional power in Southeast Asia and a middle power in global affairs.[14] With a high level of human development, Thailand is classified as a newly industrialized economy which was heavily dependent on exports. Manufacturing, agriculture, and tourism are leading sectors of the economy.[15][16] Its economy is the second-largest in Southeast Asia and the 20th largest by PPP.

Etymology

Thailand (d/ TY-land or d/ TY-lənd;[17] Thai: ประเทศไทย, RTGSPrathet Thai, pronounced [pratʰêːt tʰaj] (About this sound listen)), officially the Kingdom of Thailand (Thai: ราชอาณาจักรไทย, RTGSRatcha-anachak Thai  [râːtt͡ɕʰaʔaːnaːt͡ɕàk tʰaj] (About this sound listen), Chinese: 泰国), formerly known as Siam (Thai: สยาม, RTGSSayam  [sajǎːm]), is a country at the centre of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia.

Etymology of "Siam"

The country has always been called Mueang Thai by its citizens. By outsiders prior to 1949, it was usually known by the exonym Siam (Thai: สยาม RTGSSayam, pronounced [sajǎːm], also spelled Siem, Syâm, or Syâma).[citation needed] The word Siam has been identified[by whom?] with the Sanskrit Śyāma (श्याम, meaning "dark" or "brown"). The names Shan and A-hom seem to be variants of the same word. The word Śyâma is possibly not its origin, but a learned and artificial distortion.[clarification needed][18] Another theory is the name derives from Chinese: "Ayutthaya emerged as a dominant centre in the late fourteenth century. The Chinese called this region Xian, which the Portuguese converted into Siam." (Baker and Phongpaichit, A History of Thailand, 8) A further possibility is that Mon-speaking peoples migrating south called themselves 'syem' as do the autochthonous Mon-Khmer-speaking inhabitants of the Malay Peninsula.[citation needed]

SPPM Mongkut Rex Siamensium, King Mongkut's signature

The signature of King Mongkut (r. 1851–1868) reads SPPM (Somdet Phra Poramenthra Maha) Mongkut King of the Siamese, giving the name "Siam" official status until 24 June 1939 when it was changed to Thailand.[19] Thailand was renamed to Siam from 1946 to 1948, after which it again reverted to Thailand.

Etymology of "Thailand"

According to George Cœdès, the word Thai (ไทย) means "free man" in the Thai language, "differentiating the Thai from the natives encompassed in Thai society as serfs."[20] A famous Thai scholar argued that Thai (ไท) simply means "people" or "human being", since his investigation shows that in some rural areas the word "Thai" was used instead of the usual Thai word "khon" (คน) for people.[21] According to Michel Ferlus, the ethnonyms Thai/Tai (or Thay/Tay) would have evolved from the etymon *k(ə)ri: 'human being' through the following chain: *kəri: > *kəli: > *kədi:/*kədaj > *di:/*daj > *dajA (Proto-Southwestern Tai) > tʰajA2 (in Siamese and Lao) or > tajA2 (in the other Southwestern and Central Tai languages classified by Li Fangkuei).[22] Michel Ferlus' work is based on some simple rules of phonetic change observable in the Sinosphere and studied for the most part by William H. Baxter (1992).[23]

While Thai people will often refer to their country using the polite form prathet Thai (Thai: ประเทศไทย), they most commonly use the more colloquial term mueang Thai (Thai: เมืองไทย) or simply Thai, the word mueang, archaically a city-state, commonly used to refer to a city or town as the centre of a region. Ratcha Anachak Thai (Thai: ราชอาณาจักรไทย) means "kingdom of Thailand" or "kingdom of Thai". Etymologically, its components are: ratcha (Sanskrit राजन्, rājan, "king, royal, realm") ; -ana- (Pali āṇā "authority, command, power", itself from the Sanskrit आज्ञा, ājñā, of the same meaning) -chak (from Sanskrit चक्र cakra- "wheel", a symbol of power and rule). The Thai National Anthem (Thai: เพลงชาติ), written by Luang Saranupraphan during the extremely patriotic 1930s, refers to the Thai nation as: prathet Thai (Thai: ประเทศไทย). The first line of the national anthem is: prathet thai ruam lueat nuea chat chuea thai (Thai: ประเทศไทยรวมเลือดเนื้อชาติเชื้อไทย), "Thailand is the unity of Thai flesh and blood."

Other Languages
Acèh: Muang Thai
Адыгэбзэ: Тайлэнд
адыгабзэ: Тайланд
Afrikaans: Thailand
Alemannisch: Thailand
አማርኛ: ታይላንድ
Ænglisc: Thailand
العربية: تايلاند
aragonés: Tailandia
arpetan: Tayilande
অসমীয়া: থাইলেণ্ড
asturianu: Tailandia
Avañe'ẽ: Tailandia
azərbaycanca: Tailand
تۆرکجه: تایلند
Bahasa Banjar: Thailand
Bân-lâm-gú: Thài-kok
Basa Banyumasan: Thailand
башҡортса: Таиланд
беларуская: Тайланд
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Тайлянд
भोजपुरी: थाइलैंड
Bikol Central: Tailandya
Bislama: Thailand
български: Тайланд
Boarisch: Thailand
བོད་ཡིག: ཐའི་ལེན།
bosanski: Tajland
brezhoneg: Thailand
буряад: Тайланд
català: Tailàndia
Чӑвашла: Таиланд
Cebuano: Tayland
čeština: Thajsko
Chi-Chewa: Thailand
chiShona: Thailand
chiTumbuka: Thailand
Cymraeg: Gwlad Tai
dansk: Thailand
davvisámegiella: Thaieana
Deutsch: Thailand
ދިވެހިބަސް: ސިޔާމު
dolnoserbski: Thailandska
eesti: Tai
Ελληνικά: Ταϊλάνδη
español: Tailandia
Esperanto: Tajlando
estremeñu: Tailándia
euskara: Thailandia
eʋegbe: Thailand
فارسی: تایلند
Fiji Hindi: Thailand
føroyskt: Tailand
français: Thaïlande
Frysk: Tailân
Fulfulde: Tailannde
furlan: Tailandie
Gaeilge: An Téalainn
Gagauz: Tailand
galego: Tailandia
贛語: 泰國
Gĩkũyũ: Thailand
ગુજરાતી: થાઇલેન્ડ
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: थायलंड
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Thai-koet
한국어: 태국
Hausa: Thailand
Hawaiʻi: Tailani
Հայերեն: Թաիլանդ
हिन्दी: थाईलैण्ड
hornjoserbsce: Thailandska
hrvatski: Tajland
Ilokano: Tailandia
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: টাইলান্ডিয়া
Bahasa Indonesia: Thailand
interlingua: Thailanda
Interlingue: Thailand
Iñupiak: Thailand
Ирон: Таиланд
íslenska: Taíland
italiano: Thailandia
עברית: תאילנד
Basa Jawa: Tanah Thai
kalaallisut: Thailandi
Kapampangan: Tailandya
ქართული: ტაილანდი
kaszëbsczi: Tajlandiô
қазақша: Тайланд
kernowek: Pow Tay
Kinyarwanda: Tayilande
Kiswahili: Uthai
коми: Таиланд
Kongo: Thailand
Kreyòl ayisyen: Tayilann
kurdî: Taylenda
Кыргызча: Тайланд
лезги: Таиланд
لۊری شومالی: تایلند
Latina: Thailandia
latviešu: Taizeme
Lëtzebuergesch: Thailand
lietuvių: Tailandas
Ligure: Thailandia
Limburgs: Thailand
lingála: Thailandi
Livvinkarjala: Thaimua
la .lojban.: tais
lumbaart: Thailandia
magyar: Thaiföld
मैथिली: थाइल्याण्ड
македонски: Тајланд
Malagasy: Tailandy
मराठी: थायलंड
მარგალური: ტაილანდი
مازِرونی: تایلند
Bahasa Melayu: Thailand
Baso Minangkabau: Thailand
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Tái-guók
Mirandés: Tailándia
монгол: Тайланд
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ထိုင်းနိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Taitlalpan
Dorerin Naoero: Thailand
Nederlands: Thailand
Nedersaksies: Thailaand
नेपाली: थाइल्याण्ड
नेपाल भाषा: थाइल्यान्द
日本語: タイ王国
нохчийн: Таиланд
Nordfriisk: Thailun
Norfuk / Pitkern: Tailan
norsk: Thailand
norsk nynorsk: Thailand
Novial: Tailande
occitan: Tailàndia
олык марий: Таиланд
Oromoo: Taayilaand
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Tailand
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਥਾਈਲੈਂਡ
पालि: थाइलैंड
پنجابی: تھائی لینڈ
Papiamentu: Thailand
پښتو: تايلنډ
Patois: Tailan
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ថៃ
Picard: Thaïlinde
Piemontèis: Thailandia
Tok Pisin: Tailan
Plattdüütsch: Thailand
polski: Tajlandia
português: Tailândia
Qaraqalpaqsha: Tayland
qırımtatarca: Tayland
română: Thailanda
Runa Simi: Thaysuyu
русиньскый: Таїланд
русский: Таиланд
саха тыла: Тайлаан
Gagana Samoa: Taialani
संस्कृतम्: थैलेण्ड्
Sängö: Tailânde
Scots: Thailand
Seeltersk: Thailound
shqip: Tajlanda
sicilianu: Thailandia
Simple English: Thailand
SiSwati: IThayilandi
slovenčina: Thajsko
slovenščina: Tajska
ślůnski: Tajlandyjo
Soomaaliga: Tayland
کوردی: تایلەند
Sranantongo: Taikondre
српски / srpski: Тајланд
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Tajland
Basa Sunda: Thailand
suomi: Thaimaa
svenska: Thailand
Tagalog: Thailand
Taqbaylit: Tayland
tarandíne: Thailandie
татарча/tatarça: Таиланд
తెలుగు: థాయిలాండ్
tetun: Tailándia
тоҷикӣ: Таиланд
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᏔᏯᎴᏂ
Tsetsêhestâhese: Thailand
Türkçe: Tayland
Türkmençe: Taýland
удмурт: Таиланд
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Thailand
українська: Таїланд
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: تايلاند
Vahcuengh: Daigoz
vèneto: Thailandia
vepsän kel’: Tailand
Tiếng Việt: Thái Lan
Volapük: Tayän
Võro: Tai
walon: Taylande
文言: 泰國
West-Vlams: Thailand
Winaray: Thailand
Wolof: Taaylaand
吴语: 泰国
Xitsonga: Thailand
ייִדיש: טיילאנד
Yorùbá: Tháílàndì
粵語: 泰國
Zazaki: Taylanda
Zeêuws: Thailand
žemaitėška: Tailands
中文: 泰国
डोटेली: थाइल्याण्ड
Kabɩyɛ: Tayilandɩ