State of Texas
Flag of Texas State seal of Texas
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): The Lone Star State
Motto(s): Friendship
State song(s): " Texas, Our Texas"
Map of the United States with Texas highlighted
Official language No official language
(see Languages spoken in Texas)
Spoken languages Predominantly English;
Spanish is spoken by a sizable minority [1]
Demonym Texan
Texian (archaic)
Tejano (Usually only used for Hispanics)
Capital Austin
Largest city Houston
Largest metro Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington Metroplex
Area Ranked 2nd
 • Total 268,581 [2] sq mi
(696,241 km2)
 • Width 773 [3] miles (1,244 km)
 • Length 790 miles (1,270 km)
 • % water 2.5
 • Latitude 25° 50′ N to 36° 30′ N
 • Longitude 93° 31′ W to 106° 39′ W
Population Ranked 2nd
 • Total 27,862,596 (2016 est.) [4]
 •  Density 103.7/sq mi  (40.0/km2)
Ranked 26th
 •  Median household income $56,473 [5] (26th)
 • Highest point Guadalupe Peak [6] [7] [8]
8,751 ft (2667.4 m)
 • Mean 1,700 ft  (520 m)
 • Lowest point Gulf of Mexico [7]
sea level
Before statehood Republic of Texas
Admission to Union December 29, 1845 (28th)
Governor Greg Abbott ( R)
Lieutenant Governor Dan Patrick ( R)
Legislature Texas Legislature
 •  Upper house Senate
 •  Lower house House of Representatives
U.S. Senators John Cornyn ( R)
Ted Cruz ( R)
U.S. House delegation 25 Republicans,
11 Democrats ( list)
Time zones  
 • most of state Central: UTC −6/ −5
 • El Paso, Hudspeth, and northwestern Culberson counties Mountain: UTC −7/ −6
ISO 3166 US-TX
Abbreviations TX, Tex.
Website www.texas.gov
Texas state symbols
Flag of Texas.svg
Seal of Texas.svg
Living insignia
Bird Northern mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos)
Fish Guadalupe bass (Micropterus treculii)
Flower Bluebonnet (Lupinus spp., namely Texas bluebonnet, L. texensis)
Insect Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus)
Mammal Texas longhorn, nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus)
Reptile Texas horned lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum)
Tree Pecan (Carya illinoinensis)
Inanimate insignia
Food Chili
Instrument Guitar
Motto Friendship
Shell Lightning whelk (Busycon perversum pulleyi)
Ship USS Texas
Slogan The Friendly State
Soil Houston Black
Song " Texas, Our Texas"
Sport Rodeo
Other Molecule: Buckyball (For more, see article)
State route marker
Texas state route marker
State quarter
Texas quarter dollar coin
Released in 2004
Lists of United States state symbols

Texas ( s/, locally z/; Spanish: Texas or Tejas, pronounced  [ˈtexas]) is the second-largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U.S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast.

Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U.S., while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U.S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U.S., and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, and as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico. The "Lone Star" can be found on the Texas state flag and on the Texan state seal. [9] The origin of Texas's name is from the word "Tejas," which means "friends" in the Caddo language. [10]

Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes that resemble both the U.S. Southern and Southwestern regions. [11] Although Texas is popularly associated with the U.S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas' land area is desert. [12] Most of the population centers are located in areas of former prairies, grasslands, forests, and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, and finally the desert and mountains of the Big Bend.

The term " six flags over Texas" [note 1] refers to several nations that have ruled over the territory. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, [13] Texas joined the union as the 28th state. The state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846. A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U.S. in early 1861, and officially joined the Confederate States of America on March 2 of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation.

Historically four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton, timber, and oil. [14] Before and after the U.S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the later 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative. It was ultimately, though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits ( Spindletop in particular) that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century. As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. [15] With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, petrochemicals, energy, computers and electronics, aerospace, and biomedical sciences. Texas has led the nation in state export revenue since 2002, and has the second-highest gross state product. If it were a country, Texas would be the 10th largest economy in the world.


The name Texas, based on the Caddo word tejas meaning "friends" or "allies", was applied by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves and to the region of their settlement in East Texas. [16]

During Spanish colonial rule, the area was officially known as the Nuevo Reino de Filipinas: La Provincia de Texas (English: New Kingdom of the Philippines: The Province of Texas). [17]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Texas
Alemannisch: Texas
አማርኛ: ቴክሳስ
Ænglisc: Texas
العربية: تكساس
aragonés: Texas
arpetan: Tèxas
asturianu: Texas
Avañe'ẽ: Texas
Aymar aru: Texas suyu
azərbaycanca: Texas
বাংলা: টেক্সাস
Bân-lâm-gú: Texas
беларуская: Тэхас
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Тэхас
भोजपुरी: टेक्सास
Bikol Central: Texas
Bislama: Texas
български: Тексас
Boarisch: Texas
བོད་ཡིག: ཋེག་ཟ་སི།
bosanski: Texas
brezhoneg: Texas
буряад: Техас
català: Texas
Чӑвашла: Техас
Cebuano: Texas
čeština: Texas
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Texas
corsu: Texas
Cymraeg: Texas
dansk: Texas
davvisámegiella: Texas
Deutsch: Texas
Diné bizaad: Akałii Bikéyah
dolnoserbski: Texas
eesti: Texas
Ελληνικά: Τέξας
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Tèxas
español: Texas
Esperanto: Teksaso
euskara: Texas
فارسی: تگزاس
Fiji Hindi: Texas
føroyskt: Texas
français: Texas
Frysk: Teksas
Gaeilge: Texas
Gaelg: Texas
Gagauz: Teksas
Gàidhlig: Texas
galego: Texas
گیلکی: تگزاس
ગુજરાતી: ટેક્સસ
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Texas
хальмг: Техас
한국어: 텍사스 주
Hawaiʻi: Kekeka
Հայերեն: Տեխաս
हिन्दी: टेक्सस
hornjoserbsce: Texas
hrvatski: Texas
Ido: Texas
Igbo: Texas
Ilokano: Texas
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: টেক্সাস
Bahasa Indonesia: Texas
interlingua: Texas
Interlingue: Texas
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᑖᒃᓵᔅ
Iñupiak: Texas
Ирон: Техас
isiZulu: Texas
íslenska: Texas
italiano: Texas
עברית: טקסס
Basa Jawa: Texas
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಟೆಕ್ಸಸ್
Kapampangan: Texas
ქართული: ტეხასი
қазақша: Техас
kernowek: Teksas
Kiswahili: Texas
Kreyòl ayisyen: Teksas
Kurdî: Teksas
кырык мары: Техас
Ladino: Texas
لۊری شومالی: تئگزاس
Latina: Texia
latviešu: Teksasa
Lëtzebuergesch: Texas
lietuvių: Teksasas
Ligure: Texas
Limburgs: Texas
la .lojban.: teksys
lumbaart: Texas
magyar: Texas
मैथिली: टेक्सस
македонски: Тексас
Malagasy: Texas
മലയാളം: ടെക്സസ്
Māori: Texas
मराठी: टेक्सास
მარგალური: ტეხასი
مصرى: تكساس
مازِرونی: تگزاس
Bahasa Melayu: Texas
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Texas
монгол: Техас
မြန်မာဘာသာ: တက္ကဆပ်ပြည်နယ်
Nāhuatl: Texas
Dorerin Naoero: Texas
Nederlands: Texas (staat)
Nedersaksies: Texas
नेपाली: टेक्सस
नेपाल भाषा: तेक्सास
日本語: テキサス州
нохчийн: Техас
Nordfriisk: Texas
norsk: Texas
norsk nynorsk: Texas
occitan: Tèxas
олык марий: Техас
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Texas
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਟੈਕਸਸ
पालि: टेक्सास
پنجابی: ٹیکساس
Papiamentu: Teksas
Piemontèis: Texas
Plattdüütsch: Texas
polski: Teksas
português: Texas
Qaraqalpaqsha: Texas shtati
română: Texas
rumantsch: Texas
Runa Simi: Texas suyu
русский: Техас
саха тыла: Техас
संस्कृतम्: टेक्सास्
sardu: Texas
Scots: Texas
Seeltersk: Texas
shqip: Texas
sicilianu: Texas
Simple English: Texas
slovenčina: Texas
slovenščina: Teksas
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Тєѯасъ
ślůnski: Teksas
Soomaaliga: Texas
کوردی: تێکساس
српски / srpski: Тексас
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Texas
suomi: Texas
svenska: Texas
Tagalog: Texas
தமிழ்: டெக்சஸ்
Taqbaylit: Texas
татарча/tatarça: Техас (штат)
తెలుగు: టెక్సస్
тоҷикӣ: Тексас
Tsetsêhestâhese: Toháano'ého'ëva
Türkçe: Teksas
Türkmençe: Tehas
українська: Техас
اردو: ٹیکساس
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Téksas Shitati
vèneto: Texas
Tiếng Việt: Texas
Volapük: Texas
Winaray: Texas
ייִדיש: טעקסאס
Yorùbá: Texas
粵語: 德薩斯州
Zazaki: Teksas
Zeêuws: Texas
žemaitėška: Teksasos