Texas

State of Texas
Flag of TexasState seal of Texas
FlagSeal
Nickname(s): The Lone Star State
Motto(s): Friendship
State song(s): "Texas, Our Texas"
Map of the United States with Texas highlighted
Official languageNo official language
(see Languages spoken in Texas)
Spoken languagesPredominantly English;
Spanish is spoken by a sizable minority[1]
DemonymTexan
Texian (archaic)
Tejano (usually only used for Hispanics)
CapitalAustin
Largest cityHouston
Largest metroDallas–Fort Worth–Arlington Metroplex
AreaRanked 2nd
 • Total268,581[2] sq mi
(696,241 km2)
 • Width773[3] miles (1,244 km)
 • Length790 miles (1,270 km)
 • % water2.5
 • Latitude25° 50′ N to 36° 30′ N
 • Longitude93° 31′ W to 106° 39′ W
PopulationRanked 2nd
 • Total28,304,596 (2017 est.)[4]
 • Density108/sq mi  (40.6/km2)
Ranked 26th
 • Median household income$56,473[5] (26th)
Elevation
 • Highest pointGuadalupe Peak[6][7][8]
8,751 ft (2667.4 m)
 • Mean1,700 ft  (520 m)
 • Lowest pointGulf of Mexico[7]
Sea level
Before statehoodRepublic of Texas
Admission to UnionDecember 29, 1845 (28th)
GovernorGreg Abbott (R)
Lieutenant GovernorDan Patrick (R)
LegislatureTexas Legislature
 • Upper houseSenate
 • Lower houseHouse of Representatives
U.S. SenatorsJohn Cornyn (R)
Ted Cruz (R)
U.S. House delegation24 Republicans
11 Democrats
1 Vacant (list)
Time zones 
 • most of stateCentral: UTC −6/−5
 • El Paso, Hudspeth, and northwestern Culberson countiesMountain: UTC −7/−6
ISO 3166US-TX
AbbreviationsTX, Tex.
Websitetexas.gov
Texas state symbols
Flag of Texas.svg
Seal of Texas.svg
Living insignia
BirdNorthern mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos)
FishGuadalupe bass (Micropterus treculii)
FlowerBluebonnet (Lupinus spp., namely Texas bluebonnet, L. texensis)
InsectMonarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus)
MammalTexas longhorn, nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus)
ReptileTexas horned lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum)
TreePecan (Carya illinoinensis)
Inanimate insignia
FoodChili
InstrumentGuitar
MottoFriendship
ShellLightning whelk (Busycon perversum pulleyi)
ShipUSS Texas
SloganThe Friendly State
SoilHouston Black
Song"Texas, Our Texas"
SportRodeo
OtherMolecule: Buckyball (For more, see article)
State route marker
Texas state route marker
State quarter
Texas quarter dollar coin
Released in 2004
Lists of United States state symbols

Texas (s/, locally z/; Spanish: Texas or Tejas [ˈtexas]) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U.S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast.

Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U.S., while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U.S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U.S., and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, and as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico. The "Lone Star" can be found on the Texas state flag and on the Texan state seal.[9] The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha, which means "friends" in the Caddo language.[10]

Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U.S. Southern and Southwestern regions.[11] Although Texas is popularly associated with the U.S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert.[12] Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands, forests, and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, and finally the desert and mountains of the Big Bend.

The term "six flags over Texas"[note 1] refers to several nations that have ruled over the territory. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845,[13] Texas joined the union as the 28th state. The state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846. A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U.S. in early 1861, and officially joined the Confederate States of America on March 2 of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation.

Historically four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton, timber, and oil.[14] Before and after the U.S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the later 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative. It was ultimately, though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits (Spindletop in particular) that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century. As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54.[15] With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, petrochemicals, energy, computers and electronics, aerospace, and biomedical sciences. Texas has led the nation in state export revenue since 2002, and has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas was an individual country, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world.

Etymology

The name Texas, based on the Caddo word taysha (or tayshas) meaning "friends" or "allies", was applied by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves and to the region of their settlement in East Texas.[16][17]

During Spanish colonial rule, the area was officially known as the Nuevo Reino de Filipinas: La Provincia de Texas (English: New Kingdom of the Philippines: The Province of Texas).[18]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Texas
Alemannisch: Texas
አማርኛ: ቴክሳስ
Ænglisc: Texas
العربية: تكساس
aragonés: Texas
arpetan: Tèxas
asturianu: Texas
Avañe'ẽ: Texas
Aymar aru: Texas suyu
azərbaycanca: Texas
বাংলা: টেক্সাস
Bân-lâm-gú: Texas
башҡортса: Техас
беларуская: Тэхас
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Тэхас
भोजपुरी: टेक्सास
Bikol Central: Texas
Bislama: Texas
български: Тексас
Boarisch: Texas
བོད་ཡིག: ཋེག་ཟ་སི།
bosanski: Teksas
brezhoneg: Texas
буряад: Техас
català: Texas
Чӑвашла: Техас
Cebuano: Texas
čeština: Texas
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Texas
corsu: Texas
Cymraeg: Texas
dansk: Texas
davvisámegiella: Texas
Deutsch: Texas
Diné bizaad: Akałii Bikéyah
dolnoserbski: Texas
eesti: Texas
Ελληνικά: Τέξας
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Tèxas
español: Texas
Esperanto: Teksaso
euskara: Texas
فارسی: تگزاس
Fiji Hindi: Texas
føroyskt: Texas
français: Texas
Frysk: Teksas
Gaeilge: Texas
Gaelg: Texas
Gagauz: Teksas
Gàidhlig: Texas
galego: Texas
گیلکی: تگزاس
ગુજરાતી: ટેક્સસ
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Texas
хальмг: Техас
한국어: 텍사스 주
Hawaiʻi: Kekeka
Հայերեն: Տեխաս
हिन्दी: टेक्सस
hornjoserbsce: Texas
hrvatski: Texas
Ido: Texas
Igbo: Texas
Ilokano: Texas
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: টেক্সাস
Bahasa Indonesia: Texas
interlingua: Texas
Interlingue: Texas
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᑖᒃᓵᔅ
Iñupiak: Texas
Ирон: Техас
isiZulu: Texas
íslenska: Texas
italiano: Texas
עברית: טקסס
Basa Jawa: Texas
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಟೆಕ್ಸಸ್
Kapampangan: Texas
ქართული: ტეხასი
қазақша: Техас
kernowek: Teksas
Kiswahili: Texas
Kreyòl ayisyen: Teksas
kurdî: Teksas
кырык мары: Техас
Ladino: Texas
لۊری شومالی: تئگزاس
Latina: Texia
latviešu: Teksasa
Lëtzebuergesch: Texas
lietuvių: Teksasas
Ligure: Texas
Limburgs: Texas
la .lojban.: teksys
lumbaart: Texas
magyar: Texas
मैथिली: टेक्सस
македонски: Тексас
Malagasy: Texas
മലയാളം: ടെക്സസ്
Māori: Texas
मराठी: टेक्सास
მარგალური: ტეხასი
مصرى: تكساس
مازِرونی: تگزاس
Bahasa Melayu: Texas
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Texas
монгол: Техас
မြန်မာဘာသာ: တက္ကဆပ်ပြည်နယ်
Nāhuatl: Texas
Dorerin Naoero: Texas
Nederlands: Texas (staat)
Nedersaksies: Texas
नेपाली: टेक्सस
नेपाल भाषा: तेक्सास
日本語: テキサス州
нохчийн: Техас
Nordfriisk: Texas
norsk: Texas
norsk nynorsk: Texas
occitan: Tèxas
олык марий: Техас
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Texas
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਟੈਕਸਸ
पालि: टेक्सास
پنجابی: ٹیکساس
Papiamentu: Teksas
Piemontèis: Texas
Plattdüütsch: Texas
polski: Teksas
português: Texas
Qaraqalpaqsha: Texas shtati
română: Texas
rumantsch: Texas
Runa Simi: Texas suyu
русский: Техас
саха тыла: Техас
संस्कृतम्: टेक्सास्
sardu: Texas
Scots: Texas
Seeltersk: Texas
shqip: Texas
sicilianu: Texas
Simple English: Texas
slovenčina: Texas
slovenščina: Teksas
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Тєѯасъ
ślůnski: Teksas
Soomaaliga: Texas
کوردی: تێکساس
српски / srpski: Тексас
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Texas
suomi: Texas
svenska: Texas
Tagalog: Texas
தமிழ்: டெக்சஸ்
Taqbaylit: Texas
татарча/tatarça: Техас (штат)
తెలుగు: టెక్సస్
тоҷикӣ: Тексас
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᏅᏓᎩ
Tsetsêhestâhese: Toháano'ého'ëva
Türkçe: Teksas
Türkmençe: Tehas
українська: Техас
اردو: ٹیکساس
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Téksas Shitati
vèneto: Texas
Tiếng Việt: Texas
Volapük: Texas
Winaray: Texas
ייִדיש: טעקסאס
Yorùbá: Texas
粵語: 德薩斯州
Zazaki: Teksas
Zeêuws: Texas
žemaitėška: Teksasos
Kabɩyɛ: Tɛkɩzasɩ
Lingua Franca Nova: Texas