Prefecture building of the Tarn-et-Garonne department, in Montauban
Prefecture building of the Tarn-et-Garonne department, in Montauban
Flag of Tarn-et-Garonne
Coat of arms of Tarn-et-Garonne
Coat of arms
Location of Tarn-et-Garonne in France
Location of Tarn-et-Garonne in France
Coordinates: 44°0′N 1°20′E / 44°0′N 1°20′E / 44.000; 1.333 French Land Register data, which exclude estuaries, and lakes, ponds, and glaciers larger than 1 km2

Tarn-et-Garonne (French pronunciation: ​[taʁn e ɡaʁɔn]; Occitan: Tarn e Garona [ˈtaɾ e ɣaˈɾɔnɔ]) is a department in the southwest of France. It is traversed by the Rivers Tarn and Garonne, from which it takes its name. This area was originally part of the former provinces of Quercy and Languedoc. The department was created in 1808 by Napoléon Bonaparte, with territory being taken from the departments of Lot, Haute-Garonne, Lot-et-Garonne, Gers and Aveyron. The department is mostly rural with fertile agricultural land in the broad river valley, but there are hilly areas to the south, east and north. The departmental prefecture is Montauban, and some of the other large communes include Castelsarrasin, Molières, Caussade, Valence-d'Agen and the medieval town of Lauzerte.


History of the region

Quercy was part of Aquitania prima under the Romans, and Christianity was introduced during the 4th century. Early in the 6th century the area fell under the authority of the Franks, and in the 7th century became part of the autonomous Duchy of Aquitaine. At the end of the 10th century its rulers were the powerful counts of Toulouse. During the hostilities between England and France in the reign of Henry II of England, the English placed garrisons in the county, and by the 1259 Treaty of Paris lower Quercy came under the control of England.[1] The kings of both England and France around this time tried to curry favour by adding to the privileges of the towns and the district. In 1360, the Treaty of Brétigny was signed and the whole of Quercy passed to England. However, in the 1440s the English were finally expelled by the newly created army of Charles VII of France.[2] In the 16th century Quercy was a stronghold of the Protestants, and the scene of fierce religious conflicts. The civil wars of the reign of Louis XIII largely took place around Montauban.

After Napoleon's defeat in 1815, the monarchy was re-established in France, but the discredited Bourbon Dynasty was overthrown in the July Revolution of 1830, which established the constitutional July Monarchy, which lasted until 1848. During this time the divide between the rich and poor increased; in Montauban, hundreds turned to begging as wages fell, factories closed and food prices rose; rioting was widespread and the home of the mayor was stoned by building workers in 1847.[3]

History of the department

Before the department's formation in the nineteenth century, the northern half formed part of the old province of Quercy and the southern half, part of Languedoc. The department was created on 4 November 1808 during the First French Empire by a decision of Napoleon.[4] The emperor had been invited to visit the town of Montauban, an important industrial and commercial centre at the time, whose populace thought the town was central enough and sufficiently important to be the capital of a new department. He was impressed by their loyalty and granted their request.[4]

The department was formed out of territories that had previously been part of neighbouring areas. More than half of the territory was taken from the Department of Lot (including Montauban and Moissac), over one-third was taken from Haute-Garonne (including Castelsarrasin), and the rest from the departments of Lot-et-Garonne, Gers, and Aveyron. The first Prefect was Félix Le Peletier d'Aunay, who was installed in his post on 31 December 1808.[4]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Tarn-et-Garonne
aragonés: Tarn y Garona
azərbaycanca: Tarn və Qaronna
Bân-lâm-gú: Tarn-et-Garonne
беларуская: Тарн і Гарона
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Тарн і Гарона
български: Тарн е Гарон
brezhoneg: Tarn-ha-Garona
català: Tarn i Garona
čeština: Tarn-et-Garonne
davvisámegiella: Tarn-et-Garonne
español: Tarn y Garona
Esperanto: Tarn-et-Garonne
français: Tarn-et-Garonne
Gàidhlig: Tarn-et-Garonne
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Tarn-et-Garonne-sén
հայերեն: Թարն է Գարոն
Bahasa Indonesia: Tarn-et-Garonne
italiano: Tarn e Garonna
Kapampangan: Tarn-et-Garonne
Kiswahili: Tarn-et-Garonne
latviešu: Tarna un Garonna
lietuvių: Tarnas ir Garona
Limburgs: Tarn-et-Garonne
lumbaart: Tarn-et-Garonne
Malagasy: Tarn-et-Garonne
Bahasa Melayu: Tarn-et-Garonne
Nederlands: Tarn-et-Garonne
norsk nynorsk: Tarn-et-Garonne
occitan: Tarn e Garona
Piemontèis: Tarn-et-Garonne
Plattdüütsch: Tarn-et-Garonne
português: Tarn-et-Garonne
română: Tarn-et-Garonne
Simple English: Tarn-et-Garonne
slovenčina: Tarn-et-Garonne
slovenščina: Tarn-et-Garonne
српски / srpski: Тарн и Гарона
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Tarn-et-Garonne
Türkçe: Tarn-et-Garonne
українська: Тарн і Гаронна
Tiếng Việt: Tarn-et-Garonne
Volapük: Tarn-et-Garonne