Tampa, Florida

Tampa, Florida
City
City of Tampa
Images from top, left to right: Skyline of Downtown Tampa, Amalie Arena, Ybor City, Henry B. Plant Museum, Raymond James Stadium, Busch Gardens Tampa
Flag of Tampa, Florida
Flag
Official seal of Tampa, Florida
Seal
Nickname(s): Cigar City, [1] The Big Guava [2]
Location in Hillsborough County and the state of Florida
Location in Hillsborough County and the state of Florida
Tampa is located in the US
Tampa
Tampa
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 27°58′05″N 82°28′35″W / 27°58′05″N 82°28′35″W / 27.96806; -82.47639
Country  United States
State   Florida
County Hillsborough
Settled 1823
Incorporated ( Village) January 18, 1849
Incorporated (Town) September 10, 1853 and
August 11, 1873
Incorporated (City) December 15, 1855 * and
July 15, 1887
Government
 • Type Mayor-council
 •  Mayor Bob Buckhorn ( D)
 • Legislative Tampa City Council
Area [3]
 • City 175.22 sq mi (453.81 km2)
 • Land 113.42 sq mi (293.75 km2)
 • Water 61.80 sq mi (160.06 km2)  35.3%
 • Urban 802.3 sq mi (2,078 km2)
 • Metro 2,554 sq mi (6,610 km2)
Elevation 48 ft (14.6 m)
Population ( 2010) [5]
 • City 335,709
 • Estimate (2016) [6] 377,165
 • Rank 52nd in the US
 • Density 3,325.47/sq mi (1,283.97/km2)
 •  Urban 2.4 million ( 17th)
 •  Metro 3,068,511 [4]
Demonym(s) Tampanian, Tampan [7]
Time zone EST ( UTC-5)
 • Summer ( DST) EDT ( UTC-4)
ZIP codes 33601–33626, 33629–33631, 33633–33635, 33637, 33646, 33647, 33650, 33655, 33660–33664, 33672–33675, 33677, 33679–33682, 33684–33689, 33694 [8]
Area code(s) 813
FIPS code 12-71000 [5]
GNIS feature ID 0292005 [9]
Website www.tampagov.net
* Original city charter revoked by Florida Legislature on October 4, 1869 [10]

Tampa ( ə/) [11] is a major city in, and the county seat of, Hillsborough County, Florida, United States. [12] It is on the west coast of Florida on Tampa Bay, near the Gulf of Mexico, and is the largest city in the Tampa Bay Area. The city had a population of 335,709 at the 2010 census, [5] and an estimated population of 377,165 in 2016. [13]

Archaeological evidence indicates the shores of Tampa Bay were inhabited by indigenous peoples for thousands of years. The Safety Harbor culture developed in the area around the year 1000 AD, and the descendant Tocobaga and Pohoy chiefdoms were living in or near the current city limits of Tampa when the area was first visited by Spanish explorers in the 16th century. Interactions between native peoples and the Spanish were brief and often violent, and although the newcomers did not stay for long, they introduced European diseases which brought the collapse of native societies across the Florida peninsula over the ensuing decades. Although Spain claimed all of Florida and beyond as part of New Spain, it did not found a colony on the west coast. After the disappearance of the indigenous populations, there were no permanent settlements in the Tampa Bay area until after the United States acquired Florida from Spain in 1821.

In 1824, the United States Army established a frontier outpost called Fort Brooke at the mouth of the Hillsborough River, near the site of today's Tampa Convention Center downtown. The first civilian residents were pioneer ranchers and farmers who settled near the fort for protection from the nearby Seminole population.

The town grew slowly, and had become a minor shipping port for cattle and citrus by the time of the United States Civil War. Tampa Bay was blockaded by the United States Navy during the war, and Tampa fell into a long period of economic stagnation that continued long after the war ended.

The situation finally improved in the 1880s, when the first railroad links, the discovery of phosphate, and the arrival of the cigar industry jump-started its development, helping Tampa to grow from an isolated village with less than 800 residents in 1880 to a bustling city of over 30,000 by the early 1900s.

Today, Tampa is part of the metropolitan area most commonly referred to as the "Tampa Bay Area". For U.S. Census purposes, Tampa is part of the Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area. The four-county area is composed of roughly 2.9 million residents, [4] making it the second largest metropolitan statistical area (MSA) in the state, and the fourth largest in the Southeastern United States, behind Miami, Washington, D.C., and Atlanta. [14] The Greater Tampa Bay area has over 4 million residents and generally includes the Tampa and Sarasota metro areas.

The Tampa Bay Partnership and U.S. Census data showed an average annual growth of 2.47 percent, or a gain of approximately 97,000 residents per year. Between 2000 and 2006, the Greater Tampa Bay Market experienced a combined growth rate of 14.8 percent, growing from 3.4 million to 3.9 million and hitting the 4 million population mark on April 1, 2007. [15] A 2012 estimate shows the Tampa Bay area population to have 4,310,524 people and a 2017 projection of 4,536,854 people. [16]

A 2004 survey by the New York University newspaper Washington Square News ranked Tampa as a top city for "twenty-somethings." [17]

In 2008, Forbes ranked Tampa as America's fifth best outdoor city. [18]

A 2009 Pew Research Center study ranked Tampa as the fifth most popular American city, based on where people want to live. [19]

In 2016, Loughborough University ranked Tampa as a "Gamma" world city, alongside Phoenix, Austin, Cincinnatti, Lausanne, and Harare. [20]

In 2015, Tampa was rated the best big city to live in within the Southeastern United States by Money Magazine. [21]

History

Etymology

When the pioneer community living near the US Army outpost of Fort Brooke was incorporated in 1849, it was called "Tampa Town", and the name was shortened to simply "Tampa" in 1855. The etymology of the name is unclear. The word "Tampa" may have meant "sticks of fire" in the language of the Calusa, a Native American tribe that once lived south of today's Tampa Bay. This might be a reference to the many lightning strikes that the area receives during the summer months. Other historians claim the name means "the place to gather sticks". [22] Toponymist George R. Stewart writes that the name was the result of a miscommunication between the Spanish and the Indians, the Indian word being "itimpi", meaning simply "near it". [23]

The first iteration of the name "Tampa" first appears in the memoirs of Hernando de Escalante Fontaneda (1575), who had spent 17 years as a Calusa captive and traveled through much of peninsular Florida. He spelled it "Tanpa" and describes it as an important Calusa town on the west coast. While "Tanpa" may be the basis for the modern name, archaeologist Jerald Milanich states that the Calusa village of Tanpa was on the shores of Charlotte Harbor, which is about 65 miles south of Tampa Bay. A later Spanish expedition did not notice the mouth of Charlotte Harbor while sailing north along the west coast of Florida and assumed that the current Tampa Bay was the bay they sought, thus accidentally transferring the name on Spanish navigational charts. [24] Tampa Bay was labeled Bahía de Espíritu Santo (Bay of the Holy Spirit) in the earliest Spanish maps of Florida, but became known as Bahía Tampa (Tampa Bay) as early as 1695. [25]

People from Tampa are generally known as "Tampans" or "Tampanians". Local authorities consulted by Michael Kruse of the Tampa Bay Times suggest that "Tampan" was historically more common, while "Tampanian" became popular when the former term came to be seen as a potential insult. [7] A mix of Cuban, Italian, and Spanish immigrants began arriving in the late 1800s to live and work in the new communities of Ybor City and West Tampa. By about 1900, these newcomers came to be known as "tampeños" (or "tampeñas" for females), a term that is still sometimes used to refer to their descendants living in the area. [7] [26] [27]

European exploration

Not much is known about the cultures who called the Tampa Bay area home before European contact. When Spanish explorers arrived in the 1520s, they found Tocobaga villages around the northern half of Tampa Bay and Calusa villages along the southern portion of the bay. [28]

Extent of Tocobaga culture

Expeditions led by Pánfilo de Narváez and Hernando de Soto landed near Tampa, but neither conquistador stayed long. The native inhabitants repulsed any Spanish attempt to establish a permanent settlement or convert them to Catholicism. The newcomers brought with them infectious diseases, resulting in a total collapse of the native cultures of Florida. The Tampa area was depopulated and ignored for more than 200 years. [22]

In the mid-18th century, events in American colonies drove the Seminole people into northern Florida. [29] During this period, the Tampa area had only a handful of residents: Cuban and Native American fishermen. [30] They lived in a small village at the mouth of Spanishtown Creek on Tampa Bay, in today's Hyde Park neighborhood along Bayshore Boulevard. [30]

U.S. control

After purchasing Florida from Spain in 1821, the United States built forts and trading posts in the new territory. [31] Fort Brooke was established in January 1824 at the mouth of the Hillsborough River on Tampa Bay, in Downtown Tampa. [32]

Tampa was initially an isolated frontier outpost. The sparse civilian population practically abandoned the area during the Second Seminole War from 1835 to 1842, after which the Seminoles were forced out and many settlers returned. [33]

Fort Brooke circa 1840

Florida became the 27th state in 1845. On January 18, 1849, Tampa was officially incorporated as the "Village of Tampa". It was home to 185 civilians, or 974 total residents including military personnel, in 1850. [34] [35] Tampa was reincorporated as a town on December 15, 1855. [36]

A surviving Ft. Brooke cannon on the University of Tampa campus

Civil War and Reconstruction

During the Civil War, Florida seceded along with most of the southern states to form the Confederate States of America, and Fort Brooke was manned by Confederate troops. Martial law was declared in Tampa in January 1862, and Tampa's city government ceased to operate for the duration of the war. [37]

In 1861, the Union Navy set up a blockade around many southern ports to cut off the Confederacy, and several ships were stationed near the mouth of Tampa Bay. [38] [39] [40] The Battle of Fort Brooke on October 16 and the Battle of Ballast Point on October 18, 1863, damaged the Confederates, with Union troops destroying Confederate blockade runners. [41] The Civil War ended in April 1865 with a Confederate defeat.

In May 1865, federal troops arrived in Tampa to occupy the fort and the town as part of Reconstruction. They remained until August 1869.

Tampa was a fishing village with very few people and little industry, and limited prospects for development. Tampa's chronic yellow fever epidemics, borne by mosquitoes from the swampland, were widespread during the late 1860s and 1870s, and many residents left. [42]

In 1869, residents voted to abolish the city of Tampa government. [43] The population of "Tampa Town" was below 800 by 1870, and had fallen further by 1880. Fort Brooke was decommissioned in 1883, and except for two cannons displayed on the University of Tampa campus, all traces of the fort are gone.[ citation needed]

1880s economic prosperity

Port Tampa Inn, with rail line in front of hotel, c. 1900

In the mid-1880s, Tampa's fortunes took several sudden turns for the better. First, phosphate was discovered in the Bone Valley region southeast of Tampa in 1883. The mineral, vital for the production of fertilizers and other products, was soon being shipped out from the Port of Tampa in great volume. Tampa is still a major phosphate exporter.

The discovery of phosphate, the arrival of Plant's railroad, and the founding of Ybor City and West Tampa—all in the mid-1880s—were crucial to Tampa's development. The once-struggling village of Tampa became a bustling boomtown almost overnight, and had grown into one of the largest cities in Florida by 1900. [44]

Plant's railroad

Henry B. Plant's narrow-gauge South Florida Railroad reached Tampa and its port in late 1883, finally connecting the small town to the nation's railroad system after years of efforts by local leaders. Previously, Tampa's overland transportation links had consisted of sandy roads stretching across the Florida countryside. Plant's railroad made it much easier to get goods in and out of the Tampa Bay area. Phosphate and commercial fishing exports could be sent north by rail, [45] and many new products were brought into the Tampa market, along with the first tourists.

Ybor's first cigar factory c. 1900

Ybor's cigars

Child labor at a cigar factory, 1909. Photo by Lewis Hine.

The new railroad link enabled another important industry to come to Tampa. In 1885, the Tampa Board of Trade enticed Vicente Martinez Ybor to move his cigar manufacturing operations to Tampa from Key West. Proximity to Cuba made importation of "clear Havana tobacco" easy by sea, and Plant's railroad made shipment of finished cigars to the rest of the US market easy by land. [44]

Since Tampa was still a small town at the time (population less than 5,000), Ybor built hundreds of small houses around his factory to accommodate the immediate influx of mainly Cuban and Spanish cigar workers. Ybor City's factories rolled their first cigars in 1886, and many different cigar manufacturers moved their operations to town in ensuing years. Many Italian and a few eastern European Jewish immigrants arrived starting in the late 1880s, opening businesses and shops that catered to cigar workers. By 1900, over 10,000 immigrants had moved to the neighborhood. Several thousand more Cuban immigrants built West Tampa, another cigar-centric suburb founded a few years later by Hugh MacFarlane. Between them, two "Latin" communities combined to exponentially expand Tampa's population, economic base, and tax revenues, as Tampa became the "Cigar Capital of the World". [46]

Franklin Street, looking north past the old Hillsborough County Courthouse, Tampa c. 1910s–1920s

Early 20th century

During the first few decades of the 20th century, the cigar-making industry was the backbone of Tampa's economy. The factories in Ybor City and West Tampa made an enormous number of cigars—in the peak year of 1929, over 500,000,000 cigars were hand rolled in the city. [47]

In 1904, a civic association of local businessmen dubbed themselves Ye Mystic Krewe of Gasparilla (named after local mythical pirate José Gaspar), and staged an "invasion" of the city followed by a parade. With a few exceptions, the Gasparilla Pirate Festival has been held every year since. [48]

Bolita and organized crime

Beginning in the late 19th century, illegal bolita lotteries were very popular among the Tampa working classes, especially in Ybor City. In the early 1920s, this small-time operation was taken over by Charlie Wall, the rebellious son of a prominent Tampa family, and went big-time. Bolita was able to openly thrive only because of kick-backs and bribes to key local politicians and law enforcement officials, and many were on the take. [49]

Profits from the bolita lotteries and Prohibition-era bootlegging led to the development of several organized crime factions in the city. Charlie Wall was the first major boss, but various power struggles culminated in consolidation of control by Sicilian mafioso Santo Trafficante Sr. and his faction in the 1950s. After his death in 1954 from cancer, control passed to his son, Santo Trafficante Jr., who established alliances with families in New York City and extended his power throughout Florida and into Batista-era Cuba. [50] [51]

The era of rampant and open corruption ended in the 1950s, when Estes Kefauver's traveling organized crime hearings came to town and were followed by the sensational misconduct trials of several local officials. Although many of the worst offenders in government and the mob were not charged, the trials helped to end the sense of lawlessness which had prevailed in Tampa for decades. [49]

Panorama of Downtown Tampa taken in 1913

Mid to late 20th century

MacDill Air Force Base during World War II

Tampa grew considerably as a result of World War II. Prior to the United States' involvement in the conflict, construction began on MacDill Field, which served as a main base for Army Air Corps and later Army Air Forces operations just before and during World War II, with multiple auxiliary airfields around the Tampa Bay area and surrounding counties. At the end of the war, MacDill remained as an active military installation, while the auxiliary fields reverted to civilian control. Two of these auxiliary fields would later become the present-day Tampa International Airport and St. Pete–Clearwater International Airport. With the establishment of an independent U.S. Air Force in 1947, MacDill Field became MacDill Air Force Base.

During the 1950s and 1960s Tampa saw record-setting population growth that has not been seen since. This amazing growth spurred major expansion of the city's highways and bridges, bringing thousands into the city and creating opportunities for Tampa business owners who welcomed tourists and new citizens alike into their neighborhoods. It was during this time period in the city's history that two of the most popular tourist attractions in the area were developed – Busch Gardens and Lowry Park. Many of the well-known institutions that play an important role in the economic development of the city were established during this time period. [52]

The University of South Florida was established in North Tampa in 1956 and opened for students in September 1960. [53] The school spurred the construction of several residential and commercial developments in the previously agriculture-dominated area around the new campus. Overall, Tampa continued to expand away from the city center during the 1960s as new hospitals, schools, churches and subdivisions all began appearing to accommodate the growth. Many business offices began moving away from the traditional downtown office building into more convenient neighborhood office plazas. [52]

In 1970, the U.S. Census Bureau reported city's population as 80.0% white and 19.7% black. [54]

Four attempts have been made to consolidate the municipal government of the city of Tampa with the county government of Hillsborough County (1967, 1970, 1971, and 1972), all of which failed at the ballot box; the greatest loss was the most recent attempt in 1972, with the final tally being 33,160 (31%) in favor and 73,568 (69%) against the proposed charter. [55]

The biggest recent growth in the city was the development of New Tampa, which started in 1988 when the city annexed a mostly rural area of 24 square miles (62 km2) between I-275 and I-75.

East Tampa, historically a mostly black community, was the scene of several race riots during and for some time after the period of racial segregation, mainly due to problems between residents and the Tampa Police Department.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Tampa, Florida
asturianu: Tampa
azərbaycanca: Tampa
تۆرکجه: تمپا
Bân-lâm-gú: Tampa
беларуская: Тампа
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Тампа
भोजपुरी: टैम्पा
български: Тампа
brezhoneg: Tampa (Florida)
català: Tampa
čeština: Tampa
Cymraeg: Tampa
Deutsch: Tampa
eesti: Tampa
Ελληνικά: Τάμπα
español: Tampa
Esperanto: Tampo
euskara: Tampa
français: Tampa
Gàidhlig: Tampa, Florida
한국어: 탬파
hrvatski: Tampa, Florida
Bahasa Indonesia: Tampa, Florida
interlingua: Tampa (Florida)
italiano: Tampa
עברית: טמפה
kernowek: Tampa, Florida
Kiswahili: Tampa, Florida
Kreyòl ayisyen: Tampa, Florid
кырык мары: Тампа
latviešu: Tampa
lietuvių: Tampa
lingála: Tampa
magyar: Tampa
македонски: Тампа (Флорида)
Malagasy: Tampa, Florida
मराठी: टँपा
Bahasa Melayu: Tampa
монгол: Тампа
Dorerin Naoero: Tampa
Nederlands: Tampa (Florida)
नेपाल भाषा: ताम्पा, फ्लोरिदा
日本語: タンパ
нохчийн: Тампа
norsk: Tampa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Tampa
polski: Tampa
português: Tampa (Flórida)
română: Tampa, Florida
русский: Тампа
sardu: Tampa
Simple English: Tampa, Florida
slovenčina: Tampa
ślůnski: Tampa
српски / srpski: Тампа
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Tampa, Florida
suomi: Tampa
svenska: Tampa
தமிழ்: டாம்ப்பா
ไทย: แทมปา
Türkçe: Tampa
українська: Тампа
Tiếng Việt: Tampa, Florida
Volapük: Tampa (Florida)
Yorùbá: Tampa, Florida
粵語: 坦帕