Tallinn

Tallinn
City
From top: Old Town, KUMU, Tallinn Song Festival Grounds, Kadriorg Palace, Viru Gate, City Centre
From top: Old Town, KUMU, Tallinn Song Festival Grounds, Kadriorg Palace, Viru Gate, City Centre
Flag of Tallinn
Flag
Coat of arms of Tallinn
Coat of arms
Tallinn is located in Tallinn
Tallinn
Tallinn
Location of Tallinn in Estonia
Tallinn is located in Estonia
Tallinn
Tallinn
Tallinn (Estonia)
Tallinn is located in Baltic states
Tallinn
Tallinn
Tallinn (Baltic states)
Tallinn is located in Europe
Tallinn
Tallinn
Tallinn (Europe)
Coordinates: 59°26′14″N 24°44′43″E / 59°26′14″N 24°44′43″E / 59.43722; 24.74528
Country Estonia
CountyFlag of et-Harju maakond.svg Harju County
First appeared on map1154
Town rights1248
Government
 • MayorTaavi Aas
 • Chairman of CouncilMihhail Kõlvart
Area
 • City159.2 km2 (61.5 sq mi)
Elevation9 m (30 ft)
Population (2018[2])
 • City452,652
 • Rank1st in Estonia
 • Density2,800/km2 (7,400/sq mi)
 • Metro610,468[1]
Demonym(s)Tallinner (English)
tallinlane (Estonian)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)
GDP(nominal)[3]2017
 - Total€10 billion
 - Per capita$32,369($51,930 PPP)
HDI (2015)0.905[4]very high
Websitetallinn.ee/eng
Tallinn city logo.svg

Tallinn (n/;[5][6][7] Estonian: [ˈtɑlʲˑinˑ]; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Estonia. It is on the northern coast of the country, on the shore of the Gulf of Finland in Harju County. From the 13th century until 1918 (and briefly during the Nazi occupation of Estonia from 1941 to 1944), in languages other than Estonian, the city was known as Reval.[8] Tallinn occupies an area of 159.2 km2 (61.5 sq mi) and has a population of 450,305.[9]

Tallinn, first mentioned in 1219, received city rights in 1248,[10] but the earliest human settlements date back 5,000 years.[11] The initial claim over the land was laid by the Danes in 1219, after a successful raid of Lindanise led by Valdemar II of Denmark, followed by a period of alternating Scandinavian and German rule. Due to its strategic location, the city became a major trade hub, especially from the 14th to the 16th century, when it grew in importance as part of the Hanseatic League.

Tallinn's Old Town is one of the best preserved medieval cities in Europe and is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[12] Tallinn is the major political, financial, cultural and educational center of Estonia. Often dubbed the Silicon Valley of Europe,[13] it has the highest number of startups per person in Europe[14] and is a birthplace of many international companies, including Skype. The city is to house the headquarters of the European Union's IT agency.[15] Providing to the global cybersecurity it is the home to the NATO Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence.It is ranked as a global city and has been listed among the top 10 digital cities in the world.[16] According to the Global Financial Centres Index Tallinn is the most competitive financial center in Northern Europe and ranks 52nd internationally. The city was a European Capital of Culture for 2011, along with Turku in Finland.

Etymology

Historical names

In 1154, a town called Qlwn[17] or Qalaven (which may be derivations of Kalevan or Kolyvan)[18][19] was put on the world map of the Almoravid by the Arab cartographer Muhammad al-Idrisi, who described it as "a small town like a large castle" among the towns of 'Astlanda'. It was suggested that Quwri may have denoted a predecessor of the modern city.[20][21] The earliest names of Tallinn include Kolyvan (Russian: Колывань), which is known from East Slavic chronicles and which may have come from the Estonian mythical hero Kalev.[22][23] However, modern historians consider connecting al-Idrisi placename(s) with Tallinn unfounded and erroneous.[24][10][25][26]

Up to the 13th century, the Scandinavians and Henry of Livonia in his chronicle called the town Lindanisa (or Lyndanisse in Danish,[27][28][29] Lindanäs in Swedish and Ledenets in Old East Slavic). This name may have been derived from Linda, the mythical wife of Kalev and the mother of Kalevipoeg,[30] who in an Estonian legend carried rocks to her husband's grave, which formed the Toompea hill.[31] It has been also suggested that the archaic Estonian word linda is similar to the Votic word lidna 'castle, town'. According to this suggestion, nisa would have the same meaning as niemi 'peninsula', producing Kesoniemi, the old Finnish name for the city.[32]

Another ancient historical name for Tallinn is Rääveli in Finnish. The Icelandic Njal's saga mentions Tallinn and calls it Rafala, which is probably based on the primitive form of Revala. This name originated from Latin Revelia (Revala or Rävala in Estonian), the adjacent ancient name of the surrounding area. After the Danish conquest in 1219, the town became known in the German, Swedish and Danish languages as Reval (Latin: Revalia). Reval was in use until 1918.

Modern name

The lesser coat of arms of Tallinn, which depicts the Dannebrog cross.

The name Tallinn(a) is Estonian. It is usually thought to be derived from Taani-linn(a), (meaning 'Danish-town) (Latin: Castrum Danorum), after the Danes built the castle in place of the Estonian stronghold at Lindanisse. However, it could also have come from tali-linna ('winter-castle or town'), or talu-linna ('house/farmstead-castle or town'). The element -linna, like Germanic -burg and Slavic -grad / -gorod, originally meant 'fortress', but is used as a suffix in the formation of town names.

The previously-used official names in German About this sound Reval  and Russian Revel (Ревель) were replaced after Estonia became independent in 1918.

At first, both forms Tallinna and Tallinn were used.[33] The United States Board on Geographic Names adopted the form Tallinn between June 1923 and June 1927.[34] Tallinna in Estonian denotes the genitive case of the name, as in Tallinna Reisisadam ('the Port of Tallinn').

In Russian, the spelling of the name was changed from Таллинн to Таллин[35] (Tallin) by the Soviet authorities in the 1950s, and this spelling is still officially sanctioned by the Russian government, while Estonian authorities have been using the spelling Таллинн in Russian-language publications since the restoration of independence. The form Таллин is also used in several other languages in some of the countries that emerged from the former Soviet Union. Due to the Russian spelling, the form Tallin is sometimes found in international publications; it is also the official form in Spanish.[36]

Other variations of modern spellings include Tallinna in Finnish, Tallina in Latvian and Talinas in Lithuanian.

Other Languages
Acèh: Tallinn
Afrikaans: Tallinn
Alemannisch: Tallinn
አማርኛ: ታሊን
Ænglisc: Reval
العربية: تالين
aragonés: Tallinn
asturianu: Tallín
Avañe'ẽ: Talin
авар: Таллин
azərbaycanca: Tallin
বাংলা: তাল্লিন
Bân-lâm-gú: Tallinn
башҡортса: Таллин
беларуская: Талін
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Талін
български: Талин
བོད་ཡིག: ཏཱལ་་ལིན།
bosanski: Tallinn
brezhoneg: Tallinn
català: Tallinn
Чӑвашла: Таллин
čeština: Tallinn
Chi-Chewa: Tallinn
chiShona: Tallinn
corsu: Tallinn
Cymraeg: Tallinn
dansk: Tallinn
davvisámegiella: Tallinn
Deitsch: Tallinn
Deutsch: Tallinn
dolnoserbski: Tallinn
eesti: Tallinn
Ελληνικά: Ταλίν
эрзянь: Таллин ош
español: Tallin
Esperanto: Talino
euskara: Tallinn
eʋegbe: Tallinn
فارسی: تالین
Fiji Hindi: Tallinn
føroyskt: Tallinn
français: Tallinn
Frysk: Tallin
Gaeilge: Taillinn
Gaelg: Tallinn
Gagauz: Tallinn
Gàidhlig: Tallinn
galego: Talín
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Tallinn
한국어: 탈린
հայերեն: Տալլին
हिन्दी: ताल्लिन
hornjoserbsce: Tallinn
hrvatski: Tallinn
Ido: Tallinn
Bahasa Indonesia: Tallinn
interlingua: Tallinn
Interlingue: Tallinn
Ирон: Таллин
íslenska: Tallinn
italiano: Tallinn
עברית: טאלין
kalaallisut: Tallinn
ქართული: ტალინი
kaszëbsczi: Tallinn
қазақша: Таллинн
kernowek: Tallinn
Kiswahili: Tallinn
коми: Таллинн
Kreyòl ayisyen: Talin
kurdî: Tallinn
Кыргызча: Таллин
кырык мары: Таллинн
Ladino: Tallin
لۊری شومالی: تالین
latgaļu: Talins
Latina: Tallinna
latviešu: Tallina
Lëtzebuergesch: Tallinn
lietuvių: Talinas
Ligure: Tallinn
Limburgs: Tallinn
lingála: Tallinn
Livvinkarjala: Tallinn
lumbaart: Tallinn
magyar: Tallinn
македонски: Талин
Malagasy: Tallinn
മലയാളം: ടാലിൻ
Malti: Tallinn
Māori: Tallinn
मराठी: तालिन
მარგალური: ტალინი
مصرى: تالين
Bahasa Melayu: Tallinn
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Tallinn
мокшень: Таллинн
монгол: Таллин
Dorerin Naoero: Tallinn
Nederlands: Tallinn
日本語: タリン
нохчийн: Таллин
Nordfriisk: Tallinn
Norfuk / Pitkern: Tallinn
norsk: Tallinn
norsk nynorsk: Tallinn
Novial: Tallinn
occitan: Tallinn
олык марий: Таллинн
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Tallin
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਤਾਲਿਨ
پنجابی: ٹالن
Papiamentu: Tallinn
Перем Коми: Таллинн
Piemontèis: Tallin
Tok Pisin: Talin
Plattdüütsch: Revel
polski: Tallinn
português: Tallinn
Qaraqalpaqsha: Tallin
română: Tallinn
Romani: Tallinn
Runa Simi: Tallinn
русиньскый: Таллінн
русский: Таллин
саха тыла: Таллинн
sardu: Tallinn
Scots: Tallinn
Seeltersk: Tallinn
Sesotho: Tallinn
shqip: Talini
sicilianu: Tallin
Simple English: Tallinn
slovenčina: Tallinn
slovenščina: Talin
ślůnski: Tallinn
کوردی: تاڵین
српски / srpski: Талин
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Talin
suomi: Tallinna
svenska: Tallinn
Tagalog: Tallin
தமிழ்: தாலின்
татарча/tatarça: Tallinn
тоҷикӣ: Таллин
Türkçe: Tallinn
Türkmençe: Tallin
Twi: Tallinn
удмурт: Таллин
українська: Таллінн
اردو: تالین
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Tallin
vèneto: Tałin
vepsän kel’: Tallidn
Tiếng Việt: Tallinn
Volapük: Tallinn
Võro: Talliin
Winaray: Tallinn
Wolof: Talin
ייִדיש: טאלין
Yorùbá: Tallinn
粵語: 塔林
žemaitėška: Talins
中文: 塔林