Tajik language

Tajik
Tajiki
тоҷикӣ (tojikī)
"Tajik", written in Cyrillic (Tоҷикӣ) and Nastaliq (تاجیکی).svg
"Tojikī" written in Cyrillic script and Persian (Nasta'liq script)
Native toTajikistan and Uzbekistan
Native speakers
8.4 million (2015 census – 2015)[1]
Cyrillic, Latin, Persian (historically), Tajik Braille
Official status
Official language in
 Tajikistan
Recognised minority
language in
Language codes
ISO 639-1tg
ISO 639-2tgk
ISO 639-3tgk
Glottologtaji1245[2]
Linguasphere58-AAC-ci
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Tajik or Tajiki (Tajik: забо́ни тоҷикӣ́, zaboni tojikī, [zaˈbɔni tɔd͡ʒiˈki]),[3] also called Tajiki Persian (Tajik: форси́и тоҷикӣ́, forsii tojikī, [fɔrˈsiji tɔd͡ʒiˈki]), is the variety of Persian spoken in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. It is closely related to Dari Persian. Since the beginning of the twentieth century and collapse of the Soviet Union, Tajik has been considered by a number of writers and researchers to be a variety of Persian[4] (Halimov 1974: 30–31, Oafforov 1979: 33).[clarification needed] The popularity of this conception of Tajik as a variety of Persian was such that, during the period in which Tajik intellectuals were trying to establish Tajik as a language separate from Persian, Sadriddin Ayni, who was a prominent intellectual and educator, had to make a statement that Tajik was not a bastardized dialect of Persian.[5] The issue of whether Tajik and Persian are to be considered two dialects of a single language or two discrete languages[6] has political sides to it (see Perry 1996).[5] Today Tajik is recognized as a dialect of the Persian language.[7]

Tajik is the official language of Tajikistan. In Afghanistan (where Tajik people make up a large part of the population), this language is less influenced by Turkic languages, is called Dari, and has co-official language status. Tajik has diverged from Persian as spoken in Afghanistan and Iran due to political borders, geographical isolation, the standardization process, and the influence of Russian and neighboring Turkic languages. The standard language is based on the northwestern dialects of Tajik (region of old major city of Samarqand), which have been somewhat influenced by the neighboring Uzbek language as a result of geographical proximity. Tajik also retains numerous archaic elements in its vocabulary, pronunciation, and grammar that have been lost elsewhere in the Persophone world, in part due to its relative isolation in the mountains of Central Asia.

Geographical distribution

The most important cities of Central AsiaSamarkand and Bukhara—are in present-day Uzbekistan, where ethnic Tajiks comprise a majority.[8][9] Today, virtually all Tajik speakers in Bukhara are bilingual in Tajik and Uzbek.[citation needed] This Tajik–Uzbek bilingualism has had a strong influence on the phonology, morphology, and syntax of Bukharan Tajik.[10] Tajiks are also found in large numbers in the Surxondaryo Region in the south and along Uzbekistan's eastern border with Tajikistan. Tajik is still widely spoken in Samarqand and Buxoro today, as Tajiks account for perhaps 70% of the total population of Samarqand and have been estimated to make up as much as 90% of Buxoro.[11][12]

Official statistics in Uzbekistan state that the Tajik community comprises 5% of the nation's total population.[13] However, these numbers do not include ethnic Tajiks who, for a variety of reasons, choose to identify themselves as Uzbeks in population census forms.[14] During the Soviet "Uzbekisation" supervised by Sharof Rashidov, the head of the Uzbek Communist Party, Tajiks had to choose either to stay in Uzbekistan and get registered as Uzbek in their passports or leave the republic for the less-developed agricultural and mountainous Tajikistan.[15] The "Uzbekization" movement ended in 1924.[16] Native Tajiks living in the nation of Uzbekistan have reportedly estimated that Tajiks make up 25–30% of the nation's population.[11]

Tajiks constitute 80% of Tajikistan's population, and the language dominates in most parts of the country. Some Tajiks in Badakhshan in southeastern Tajikistan, where the Pamir languages are the native languages of most residents, are bilingual. Tajiks are the dominant ethnic group in Northern Afghanistan as well, and are also the majority group in scattered pockets elsewhere in the country, particularly urban areas such as Kabul, Mazar-i-Sharif, Kunduz, Ghazni and Herat. Tajiks constitute between 25% and 30% of the total population of the country. In Afghanistan, the dialects spoken by ethnic Tajiks are written using the Persian alphabet and referred to as the Dari, along with the dialects of other groups in Afghanistan such as the Hazaragi and Aimaq dialects. Approximately 15-30% of Afghan citizens are native speakers of Dari.[17] A large Tajik-speaking diaspora exists due to the instability that has plagued Central Asia in recent years, with significant numbers of Tajiks found in Russia, Kazakhstan, and beyond. This Tajik diaspora is also the result of the poor state of the economy of Tajikistan, and each year approximately one million men leave Tajikistan in order to gain employment in Russia.[18]

Dialects

Tajik dialects can be approximately split into the following groups:

  1. Northern dialects (Northern Tajikistan, Bukhara, Samarkand, Kyrgyzstan, and the Varzob valley region of Dushanbe).[19]
  2. Central dialects (dialects of the upper Zarafshan Valley)[19]
  3. Southern dialects (South and East of Dushanbe, Kulob, and the Rasht region of Tajikistan)[19]
  4. Southeastern dialects (dialects of the Darvoz region and the Amu Darya near Rushon)[19]

The dialect used by the Bukharan Jews of Central Asia are known as the Bukhori dialect and belong to the northern dialect grouping. They are chiefly distinguished by the inclusion of Hebrew terms, principally religious vocabulary, and a historical use of the Hebrew alphabet. Despite these differences, Bukhori is readily intelligible to other Tajik-speakers, particularly speakers of northern dialects.

A very important moment in the development of the contemporary Tajik, especially of the spoken language, is the tendency in changing its dialectal orientation. The dialects of Northern Tajikistan were the foundation of the prevalent standard Tajik, while the Southern dialects did not enjoy either popularity or prestige. Now all politicians and public officials make their speeches in the Kulob dialect, which is also used in broadcasting.[20]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Tadjiks
አማርኛ: ታጂክኛ
العربية: لغة طاجيكية
azərbaycanca: Tacik dili
Bân-lâm-gú: Tajik-gí
беларуская: Таджыкская мова
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Таджыцкая мова
भोजपुरी: ताजिक भाषा
български: Таджикски език
brezhoneg: Tadjikeg
català: Tadjik
Чӑвашла: Таджик чĕлхи
čeština: Tádžičtina
Ελληνικά: Τατζίκ γλώσσα
español: Idioma tayiko
Esperanto: Taĝika lingvo
euskara: Tajikera
Fiji Hindi: Tajik language
français: Tadjik
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Tajik-ngî
한국어: 타지크어
Հայերեն: Տաջիկերեն
Bahasa Indonesia: Bahasa Tajik
íslenska: Tadsikíska
italiano: Lingua tagica
עברית: טג'יקית
Basa Jawa: Basa Tajik
ქართული: ტაჯიკური ენა
қазақша: Тәжік тілі
Kinyarwanda: Igitajiki
Kiswahili: Kitajiki
latviešu: Tadžiku valoda
lietuvių: Tadžikų kalba
македонски: Таџички јазик
മലയാളം: താജിക് ഭാഷ
მარგალური: ტაჯიკური ნინა
Nederlands: Tadzjieks
日本語: タジク語
norsk: Tadsjikisk
norsk nynorsk: Tadsjikisk
олык марий: Таджик йылме
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Tojik tili
پنجابی: تاجک بولی
Piemontèis: Lenga Tajiki
Plattdüütsch: Tadschiksche Spraak
português: Língua tajique
qırımtatarca: Tacik tili
română: Limba tadjică
Runa Simi: Tayik simi
саха тыла: Таджик тыла
Scots: Tajik leid
Simple English: Tajik language
slovenčina: Tadžičtina
српски / srpski: Таџички језик
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Tadžički jezik
svenska: Tadzjikiska
Türkçe: Tacikçe
удмурт: Таджик кыл
українська: Таджицька мова
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: تاجىك تىلى
Tiếng Việt: Tiếng Tajik
粵語: 塔吉克文
Zazaki: Taciki
中文: 塔吉克语