Taiwanese Romanization System

Taiwanese Romanization System
Traditional Chinese 臺灣 閩南語 羅馬字 拼音方案
Simplified Chinese 台湾 闽南语 罗马字 拼音方案
Traditional Chinese 臺羅拼音
Simplified Chinese 台罗拼音

The Taiwanese Romanization System (Taiwanese Romanization: Tâi-uân Lô-má-jī Phing-im Hong-àn, Chinese: 臺灣閩南語羅馬字拼音方案; pinyin: Táiwān Mǐnnányǔ Luómǎzì Pīnyīn Fāng'àn; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tâi-ôan Lô-má-jī Pheng-im Hong-àn; often referred to as Tâi-lô) is a transcription system for Taiwanese Hokkien. It is derived from Pe̍h-ōe-jī and since 2006 has been one of the officially promoted phonetic notation system by Taiwan's Ministry of Education. [1] It is nearly identical to Taiwanese Language Phonetic Alphabet (TLPA) Romanization for Hakka apart from using ts tsh j instead of c ch j for the fricatives /ts tsʰ dz/.

Taiwanese Romanization System


Taiwanese Romanization System uses 16 basic Latin letters (A, B, E, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, S, T, U), 7 digraphs (Kh, Ng, nn, Oo, Ph, Th, Ts) and a trigraph (Tsh). In addition, it uses 6 diacritics to represent tones.

Capital letter A B E G H I J K Kh L M N Ng O Oo P Ph S T Th Ts Tsh U
Lower case a b e g h i j k kh l m n ng nn o oo p ph s t th ts tsh u
  • "nn" is only used after a vowel to express nasalization, so it has no capital letter.
  • Palatalization occurs when "J, S, Ts, Tsh" followed by "i", so "Ji, Si, Tsi, Tshi" sometimes governed as trigraphs and hexagraphs.
  • Of the 10 unused basic Latin letters, "R" is sometimes used to express dialectal vowels, while the others (C, D, F, Q, V, W, X, Y, Z) are only used in loanwords.