Switzerland

Swiss Confederation

  • Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft  (German)
  • Confédération suisse  (French)
  • Confederazione Svizzera  (Italian)
  • Confederaziun svizra  (Romansh)
  • Confoederatio Helvetica  (Latin)
Motto: (traditional)
"Unus pro omnibus, omnes pro uno" (Latin)
"One for all, all for one"
Anthem: "Swiss Psalm"
Location of .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}Switzerland (green) in Europe (green & dark grey)
Location of Switzerland (green)

in Europe (green & dark grey)

CapitalNone (de jure)
Bern (de facto)[note 1][1][2]
46°57′N 7°27′E / 46°57′N 7°27′E / 46.950; 7.450
Largest cityZürich
Official languagesGerman
French
Italian
Romansh
Demonym(s)English: Swiss,
German: Schweizer(in),
French: Suisse(sse),
Italian: svizzero/svizzera, or elvetico/elvetica,
Romansh: Svizzer/Svizra
GovernmentFederal semi-direct democracy under a multi-party parliamentary directorial republic
Walter Thurnherr
LegislatureFederal Assembly
Council of States
National Council
History
c. 1300[note 2] (traditionally 1 August 1291)
24 October 1648
7 August 1815
12 September 1848[note 3][3]
Area
• Total
41,285 km2 (15,940 sq mi) (132nd)
• Water (%)
4.2
Population
• 2019 estimate
Increase 8,555,541[4] (99th)
• 2015 census
8,327,126[5]
• Density
207/km2 (536.1/sq mi) (48th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$548 billion[6] (38th)
• Per capita
$64,649[6] (9th)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$704 billion[6] (20th)
• Per capita
$82,950[6] (2nd)
Gini (2016)Positive decrease 29.4[7]
low · 19th
HDI (2017)Increase 0.944[8]
very high · 2nd
CurrencySwiss franc (CHF)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)
Date formatdd.mm.yyyy (AD)
Driving sideright
Calling code+41
ISO 3166 codeCH
Internet TLD.ch, .swiss

Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state situated in the confluence of western, central, and southern Europe.[9][note 4] It is a federal republic composed of 26 cantons, with federal authorities seated in Bern.[1][2][note 1] Switzerland is a landlocked country bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. It is geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2 (15,940 sq mi), and land area of 39,997 km2 (15,443 sq mi). While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of approximately 8.5 million is concentrated mostly on the plateau, where the largest cities are located, among them the two global cities and economic centres of Zürich and Geneva.

The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. Since the Reformation of the 16th century, Switzerland has maintained a strong policy of armed neutrality; it has not fought an international war since 1815 and did not join the United Nations until 2002. Nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world.[10] Switzerland is the birthplace of the Red Cross, one of the world's oldest and best known humanitarian organisations, and is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. It is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties.

Switzerland occupies the crossroads of Germanic and Romance Europe, as reflected in its four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French, Italian and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy,[11] and Alpine symbolism.[12][13] Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz [ˈʃvaɪts] (German);[note 5] Suisse [sɥis(ə)] (French); Svizzera [ˈzvittsera] (Italian); and Svizra [ˈʒviːtsrɐ, ˈʒviːtsʁɐ] (Romansh).[note 6] On coins and stamps, the Latin name, Confoederatio Helvetica – frequently shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.

Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult[14] and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product.[15][16] It ranks at or near the top in several international metrics, including economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich, Geneva and Basel have been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with Zürich ranked second globally.[17]

Etymology

The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swiss, which was in use during the 16th to 19th centuries.[18] The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, also in use since the 16th century. The name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, one of the Waldstätten cantons which formed the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for "Confederates", Eidgenossen (literally: comrades by oath), used since the 14th century. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica (English: Helvetic Confederation).

The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes, ultimately perhaps related to swedan ‘to burn’ (cf. Old Norse svíða ‘to singe, burn’), referring to the area of forest that was burned and cleared to build.[19] The name was extended to the area dominated by the canton, and after the Swabian War of 1499 gradually came to be used for the entire Confederation.[20][21] The Swiss German name of the country, Schwiiz, is homophonous to that of the canton and the settlement, but distinguished by the use of the definite article (d'Schwiiz for the Confederation,[22] but simply Schwyz for the canton and the town).[23]

The Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced gradually after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal.[24] (for example, the ISO banking code "CHF" for the Swiss franc, and the country top-level domain ".ch", are both taken from the state's Latin name). Helvetica is derived from the Helvetii, a Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era.

Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a 1672 play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach.[25]

Other Languages
Acèh: Swiss
Адыгэбзэ: Шуейцарэ
адыгабзэ: Швейцарие
Afrikaans: Switserland
Alemannisch: Schweiz
አማርኛ: ስዊዘርላንድ
Ænglisc: Swissland
العربية: سويسرا
aragonés: Suiza
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܣܘܝܣܪܐ
armãneashti: Shwaitsã
arpetan: Suisse
অসমীয়া: ছুইজাৰলেণ্ড
asturianu: Suiza
Avañe'ẽ: Suísa
Aymar aru: Switsira
azərbaycanca: İsveçrə
تۆرکجه: سوئیس
Bân-lâm-gú: Sūi-se
башҡортса: Швейцария
беларуская: Швейцарыя
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Швайцарыя
Bikol Central: Suisa
Bislama: Switzerland
български: Швейцария
Boarisch: Schweiz
བོད་ཡིག: སུད་སི།
bosanski: Švicarska
brezhoneg: Suis
буряад: Швейцари
català: Suïssa
Чӑвашла: Швейцари
Cebuano: Swisa
čeština: Švýcarsko
Chamoru: Switzerland
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Suiza
Chi-Chewa: Switzerland
chiShona: Switzerland
chiTumbuka: Switzerland
corsu: Sguìzzera
Cymraeg: Y Swistir
dansk: Schweiz
davvisámegiella: Šveica
Deitsch: Schweiz
Deutsch: Schweiz
ދިވެހިބަސް: ސުވިޒަލޭންޑު
dolnoserbski: Šwicarska
eesti: Šveits
Ελληνικά: Ελβετία
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Svézzra
español: Suiza
Esperanto: Svislando
estremeñu: Suiça
euskara: Suitza
eʋegbe: Switzerland
فارسی: سوئیس
Fiji Hindi: Switzerland
føroyskt: Sveis
français: Suisse
Fulfulde: Suwis
furlan: Svuizare
Gaeilge: An Eilvéis
Gagauz: Elveţiya
Gàidhlig: An Eilbheis
galego: Suíza
ГӀалгӀай: Швейцари
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: स्वित्झर्लंड
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Sui-sṳ
한국어: 스위스
Hawaiʻi: Kuikilani
հայերեն: Շվեյցարիա
hornjoserbsce: Šwicarska
hrvatski: Švicarska
Ido: Suisia
Ilokano: Suisa
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: সুইজারল্যান্ড
Bahasa Indonesia: Swiss
interlingua: Switza
Interlingue: Svissia
isiXhosa: Switserii
íslenska: Sviss
italiano: Svizzera
עברית: שווייץ
Kabɩyɛ: Suwiisi
kalaallisut: Schweizi
Kapampangan: Suiza
къарачай-малкъар: Швейцария
ქართული: შვეიცარია
kaszëbsczi: Szwajcarskô
қазақша: Швейцария
kernowek: Swistir
Kinyarwanda: Ubusuwisi
Kiswahili: Uswisi
Kongo: Suisi
Kreyòl ayisyen: Swis
kurdî: Swîsre
Кыргызча: Швейцария
Ladino: Suisa
latgaļu: Šveicareja
Latina: Helvetia
latviešu: Šveice
Lëtzebuergesch: Schwäiz
лезги: Швейцария
lietuvių: Šveicarija
Ligure: Svissea
Limburgs: Zwitserland
lingála: Swisi
Lingua Franca Nova: Suiz
Livvinkarjala: Šveitsarii
la .lojban.: elvetias
lumbaart: Svìzzera
magyar: Svájc
македонски: Швајцарија
Malagasy: Soisa
Malti: Żvizzera
მარგალური: შვეიცარია
مصرى: سويسرا
مازِرونی: سوییس
Bahasa Melayu: Switzerland
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Sôi-sê̤ṳ
мокшень: Швайцарие
монгол: Швейцари
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဆွစ်ဇာလန်နိုင်ငံ
Dorerin Naoero: Witsierand
Nederlands: Zwitserland
Nedersaksies: Zwitserlaand
नेपाल भाषा: स्वित्जरल्यान्द
日本語: スイス
Napulitano: Sguizzera
нохчийн: Швейцари
Nordfriisk: Swaits
Norfuk / Pitkern: Switsaland
norsk: Sveits
norsk nynorsk: Sveits
Nouormand: Suisse
Novial: Suisia
occitan: Soïssa
олык марий: Швейцарий
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Shveysariya
Pälzisch: Schweiz
Pangasinan: Switzerland
پنجابی: سویٹزرلینڈ
Papiamentu: Suisa
پښتو: سويس
Patois: Suitsalan
Перем Коми: Швайсму
Picard: Suisse
Piemontèis: Svìssera
Tok Pisin: Suwisalan
Plattdüütsch: Swiez
polski: Szwajcaria
Ποντιακά: Ελβετία
português: Suíça
Qaraqalpaqsha: Shveytsariya
qırımtatarca: İsviçre
Ripoarisch: Schweiz
română: Elveția
romani čhib: Elveciya
rumantsch: Svizra
Runa Simi: Suwisa
русиньскый: Швайц
русский: Швейцария
саха тыла: Швейцария
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱥᱩᱭᱡᱟᱨᱞᱮᱱᱰ
Gagana Samoa: Suitiselani
sardu: Isvìtzera
Seeltersk: Swaits
Sesotho sa Leboa: Switzerland
shqip: Zvicra
sicilianu: Svìzzira
Simple English: Switzerland
SiSwati: ISwizalendi
slovenčina: Švajčiarsko
slovenščina: Švica
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Свицєра
ślůnski: Szwajcaryjo
Soomaaliga: Iswisarland
کوردی: سویس
Sranantongo: Swiskondre
српски / srpski: Швајцарска
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Švajcarska
Sunda: Suis
suomi: Sveitsi
svenska: Schweiz
Tagalog: Suwisa
Taqbaylit: Taswist
tarandíne: Svizzere
tetun: Suisa
тоҷикӣ: Швейсария
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᏍᏫᏍ
Tsetsêhestâhese: Switzerland
Türkçe: İsviçre
Türkmençe: Şweýsariýa
тыва дыл: Швейцария
удмурт: Швейцария
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Swiss
українська: Швейцарія
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: شۋېتسارىيە
Vahcuengh: Nyeiqswq
vèneto: Svìsara
vepsän kel’: Šveicarii
Tiếng Việt: Thụy Sĩ
Volapük: Jveizän
Võro: Sveits
walon: Swisse
文言: 瑞士
West-Vlams: Zwitserland
Winaray: Swiza
Wolof: Suwis
吴语: 瑞士
Xitsonga: Switzerland
ייִדיש: שווייץ
Yorùbá: Swítsàlandì
粵語: 瑞士
Zazaki: İswiçre
Zeêuws: Zwitserland
žemaitėška: Šveicarėjė
中文: 瑞士