Sweden

Motto: (royal) "För Sverige – i tiden"[a]
"For Sweden – With the Times"[1]
Anthem: Du gamla, Du fria[b]
Thou ancient, thou free

Royal anthemKungssången
Song of the King
EU-Sweden (orthographic projection).svg
EU-Sweden.svg
Location of Sweden (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green)  –  [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Stockholm
59°21′N 18°4′E / 59°21′N 18°4′E / 59.350; 18.067Official languagesSwedish[c]
Official minority languages:[c]
Finnish
Meänkieli
Sami
Romani
YiddishEthnic groups
No official statistics[d]Demonym(s)GovernmentUnitary parliamentary
constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Carl XVI GustafAndreas NorlénStefan LöfvenLegislatureRiksdagHistory
• A unified Swedish kingdom established
By the early 12th century
• Part of Kalmar Union
1397–15234 November 1814 – August 1905[2]1 January 1995Area
• Total
450,295 km2 (173,860 sq mi) (55th)
• Water (%)
8.7Population
• July 2019 census
Increase 10,290,800[3] (89th)
• Density
23/km2 (59.6/sq mi) (198th)GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$567 billion[4] (36th)
• Per capita
$54,474[4] (17th)GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$563 billion[4] (23rd)
• Per capita
$54,135[4] (11th)Gini (2017)Negative increase 28.0[5]
lowHDI (2017)Increase 0.933[6]
very high · 7thCurrencySwedish krona (SEK)Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)Date formatYYYY-MM-DDDriving sideright[e]Calling code+46ISO 3166 codeSEInternet TLD.se[f]
  1. ^ "För Sverige – I tiden" has been adopted by Carl XVI Gustaf as his personal motto.
  2. ^ Du gamla, Du fria has never been officially adopted as national anthem, but is so by convention.
  3. ^ Since 1 July 2009.[7][8] Five other languages are officially recognised as minority languages:[9] Finnish, Meänkieli, Romani, Sami, and Yiddish. The Swedish Sign Language also has a special status.
  4. ^ On 31 December 2012, approximately 27% of the population had a full or partial foreign background.[10][11]
  5. ^ Since 3 September 1967.
  6. ^ The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states.

Sweden (Swedish: Sverige [¹sværjɛ] (About this soundlisten)), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish: Konungariket Sverige [²koːnɵŋaˌriːkɛt ¹sværjɛ] (About this soundlisten)), is a country in Northern Europe.[12] It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, and is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund Strait. At 450,295 square kilometres (173,860 sq mi), Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. The capital city is Stockholm. Sweden has a total population of 10.3 million[3] of which 2.5 million have a foreign background.[13] It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre (57/sq mi) and the highest urban concentration is in the central and southern half of the country.

Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia. The climate is in general very mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence. In spite of the high latitude, Sweden often has warm continental summers, being located in between the North Atlantic, the Baltic Sea and the vast Eurasian Russian landmass. The general climate and environment varies significantly from the south and north due to the vast latitudal difference and much of Sweden has reliably cold and snowy winters. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is heavily forested and includes a portion of the Scandinavian Mountains.

Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats (Swedish Götar) and Swedes (Svear) and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population,[14][15] the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture, finances and languages. This led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397,[16] which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and eventually the Swedish Empire was formed. This became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were gradually lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809. The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into a personal union, which peacefully dissolved in 1905. Since then, Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs.[17] Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 openly moved towards cooperation with NATO.

Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary democracy, with Legislative power vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. It is a unitary state, currently divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens. It has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks very highly in quality of life, health, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality, prosperity and human development.[18][19][20] Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum. It is also a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

Etymology

The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes" (Old Norse Svíþjóð, Latin Suetidi). This word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas (Old Norse Sviar, Latin Suiones). The Swedish name Sverige (a compound of the words Svea and rike, with lenition of the consonant [k], first recorded in the cognate Swēorice in Beowulf)[21] literally means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland.

Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, and the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi (Finnish) and Rootsi (Estonian) are used, names commonly considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, Uppland, who were known as the Rus', and through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia.

The etymology of Swedes, and thus Sweden, is generally not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own",[22] referring to one's own Germanic tribe.

Other Languages
Acèh: Swèdia
Адыгэбзэ: Шуецэ
адыгабзэ: Швецие
Afrikaans: Swede
Akan: Sweden
Alemannisch: Schweden
አማርኛ: ስዊድን
Ænglisc: Swēoland
Аҧсшәа: Швециа
العربية: السويد
aragonés: Suecia
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܣܘܝܕ
armãneashti: Suidia
arpetan: Suède
asturianu: Suecia
Avañe'ẽ: Suésia
авар: Швеция
Aymar aru: Swisiya
azərbaycanca: İsveç
تۆرکجه: سوئد
bamanankan: Swedi
বাংলা: সুইডেন
Bân-lâm-gú: Sūi-tián
башҡортса: Швеция
беларуская: Швецыя
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Швэцыя
भोजपुरी: स्वीडन
Bikol Central: Suesya
Bislama: Sweden
български: Швеция
Boarisch: Schwedn
བོད་ཡིག: སི་ཝེ་དེན།
bosanski: Švedska
brezhoneg: Sveden
буряад: Швеци
català: Suècia
Чӑвашла: Швеци
Cebuano: Suwesya
čeština: Švédsko
Chamoru: Swesia
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Suecia
chiShona: Sweden
chiTumbuka: Sweden
corsu: Svezia
Cymraeg: Sweden
dansk: Sverige
davvisámegiella: Ruoŧŧa
Deitsch: Schweden
Deutsch: Schweden
ދިވެހިބަސް: ސުވިޑަން
dolnoserbski: Šwedska
डोटेली: स्वीडेन
ཇོང་ཁ: སུའི་ཌན་
eesti: Rootsi
Ελληνικά: Σουηδία
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Śvèsia
español: Suecia
Esperanto: Svedio
estremeñu: Suecia
euskara: Suedia
eʋegbe: Sweden
فارسی: سوئد
Fiji Hindi: Sweden
føroyskt: Svøríki
français: Suède
Frysk: Sweden
Fulfulde: Suwed
furlan: Svezie
Gaeilge: An tSualainn
Gaelg: Yn Toolynn
Gagauz: Şvețiya
Gàidhlig: An t-Suain
galego: Suecia
贛語: 瑞典
Gĩkũyũ: Cuindeni
ગુજરાતી: સ્વિડન
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: स्विडन
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Sui-tiên
хальмг: Сведин Нутг
한국어: 스웨덴
Hausa: Sweden
Hawaiʻi: Kuekene
հայերեն: Շվեդիա
Արեւմտահայերէն: Շուէտ
हिन्दी: स्वीडन
hornjoserbsce: Šwedska
hrvatski: Švedska
Ido: Suedia
Igbo: Sweden
Ilokano: Suesia
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: সুইডেন
Bahasa Indonesia: Swedia
interlingua: Svedia
Interlingue: Svedia
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᔅᕗᕆᑭ
Ирон: Швеци
isiZulu: ISwidi
íslenska: Svíþjóð
italiano: Svezia
עברית: שוודיה
Jawa: Swèdhen
Kabɩyɛ: Sʊyɛdɩ
kalaallisut: Svenskit Nunaat
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಸ್ವೀಡನ್
Kapampangan: Sweden
къарачай-малкъар: Швеция
ქართული: შვედეთი
kaszëbsczi: Szwedzkô
қазақша: Швеция
kernowek: Swedherwyk
Kinyarwanda: Suwede
Kiswahili: Uswidi
коми: Швеция
Kongo: Suedi
Kreyòl ayisyen: Syèd
kurdî: Swêd
Кыргызча: Швеция
Ladino: Suesia
لۊری شومالی: سۊئد
latgaļu: Švedeja
Latina: Suecia
latviešu: Zviedrija
Lëtzebuergesch: Schweden
лезги: Швеция
lietuvių: Švedija
Ligure: Sveçia
Limburgs: Zwede
lingála: Swédi
Lingua Franca Nova: Sveria
Livvinkarjala: Ruočči
la .lojban.: sueriges
Luganda: Swiiden
lumbaart: Svezia
magyar: Svédország
मैथिली: स्वीडेन
македонски: Шведска
Malagasy: Soeda
മലയാളം: സ്വീഡൻ
Malti: Żvezja
Māori: Huitene
मराठी: स्वीडन
მარგალური: შვედეთი
مصرى: السويد
مازِرونی: سوئد
Bahasa Melayu: Sweden
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Sôi-diēng
мокшень: Шведмастор
монгол: Швед
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဆွီဒင်နိုင်ငံ
Dorerin Naoero: Widen
Nederlands: Zweden
Nedersaksies: Sveden
नेपाली: स्वीडेन
नेपाल भाषा: स्विदेन
Napulitano: Sguezia
нохчийн: Швеци
Nordfriisk: Swärik
Norfuk / Pitkern: Swiiden
norsk: Sverige
norsk nynorsk: Sverige
Nouormand: Suède
Novial: Suedia
occitan: Suècia
олык марий: Швеций
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ସ୍ୱିଡେନ
Oromoo: Iswiidin
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Shvetsiya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸਵੀਡਨ
पालि: स्वीडन
Pangasinan: Suesia
پنجابی: سویڈن
Papiamentu: Suecia
پښتو: سویډن
Patois: Swiidn
Перем Коми: Шведму
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ស៊ុយអែត
Picard: Suède
Piemontèis: Svessia
Tok Pisin: Suwidan
Plattdüütsch: Sweden
polski: Szwecja
Ποντιακά: Σουηδία
português: Suécia
Qaraqalpaqsha: Shvetsiya
qırımtatarca: İsveç
reo tahiti: Tuete
română: Suedia
rumantsch: Svezia
Runa Simi: Suwidsuyu
русиньскый: Швеція
русский: Швеция
саха тыла: Швеция
Gagana Samoa: Suetena
संस्कृतम्: स्वीडन
sardu: Isvetzia
Scots: Swaden
Seeltersk: Sweeden
shqip: Suedia
sicilianu: Svezzia
Simple English: Sweden
سنڌي: سويڊن
SiSwati: ISwideni
slovenčina: Švédsko
slovenščina: Švedska
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Свєньско
ślůnski: Szwecyjo
Soomaaliga: Iswiidhan
کوردی: سوێد
Sranantongo: Swerigekondre
српски / srpski: Шведска
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Švedska
Sunda: Swédia
suomi: Ruotsi
svenska: Sverige
Tagalog: Suwesya
தமிழ்: சுவீடன்
Taqbaylit: Sswid
tarandíne: Svezzie
татарча/tatarça: Швеция
తెలుగు: స్వీడన్
tetun: Suésia
тоҷикӣ: Шветсия
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᏍᏫᏕᏂ
Türkçe: İsveç
Türkmençe: Şwesiýa
Twi: Sweden
тыва дыл: Швеция
удмурт: Швеция
українська: Швеція
اردو: سویڈن
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: شۋېتسىيە
Vahcuengh: Nyeiqdenj
vèneto: Svèsia
vepsän kel’: Ročinma
Tiếng Việt: Thụy Điển
Volapük: Svedän
Võro: Roodsi
walon: Suwedwesse
文言: 瑞典
West-Vlams: Zweedn
Winaray: Suwesya
Wolof: Suweed
吴语: 瑞典
Xitsonga: Sweden
ייִדיש: שוועדן
Yorùbá: Swídìn
粵語: 瑞典
Zazaki: İswec
Zeêuws: Zweden
žemaitėška: Švedėjė
中文: 瑞典