Swahili language

Swahili
Kiswahili
Native toTanzania, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Somalia (on the Bajuni islands and Barawa), Mozambique (mostly Mwani), Burundi, Rwanda, Uganda,[1] Comoros, Mayotte, Zambia, Malawi, and Madagascar
Native speakers
unclear. Estimates range from 2 million (2003)[2] to 15 million (2012)[3]
L2 speakers:90 million (1991–2015)[3]
Official status
Official language in
Regulated by
Language codes
ISO 639-1sw
ISO 639-2swa
ISO 639-3swainclusive code
Individual codes:
swc – Congo Swahili
swh – Coastal Swahili
ymk – Makwe
wmw – Mwani
Glottologswah1254[4]
  • G.42–43;
  • G.40.A–H (pidgins & creoles)
[5]
Linguasphere99-AUS-m
Maeneo penye wasemaji wa Kiswahili.png
  areas where Swahili or Comorian is the indigenous language
  official or national language
  as a trade language
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Swahili, also known as Kiswahili (translation: language of the Swahili people), is a Bantu language and the first language of the Swahili people. It is a lingua franca of the African Great Lakes region and other parts of eastern and south-eastern Africa, including Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Mozambique, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).[6] Comorian, spoken in the Comoros Islands is sometimes considered to be a dialect of Swahili, though other authorities consider it a distinct language.[7]

The exact number of Swahili speakers, be it native or second-language speakers, is unknown and a matter of debate. Various estimates have been put forward and they vary widely, from 50 million to over 100 million.[8] Swahili serves as a national language of four nations: Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, and the DRC. Shikomor, the official language in Comoros and also spoken in Mayotte (Shimaore), is related to Swahili.[9] Swahili is also one of the working languages of the African Union and officially recognised as a lingua franca of the East African Community.[10] South Africa legalized the teaching of Swahili in South African schools as an optional subject beginning in 2020.[11]

A significant fraction of Swahili vocabulary derives from Arabic[12], in part conveyed by Arabic-speaking Muslim inhabitants. For example, the Swahili word for "book" is kitabu, traceable back to the Arabic word كتاب kitābu (from the root k-t-b "write"). However, the Swahili plural form of this word ("books") is vitabu, following Bantu grammar in which ki- is reanalysed as a nominal class prefix, whose plural is vi-.[13]

Classification

Swahili is a Bantu language of the Sabaki branch.[14] In Guthrie's geographic classification, Swahili is in Bantu zone G, whereas the other Sabaki languages are in zone E70, commonly under the name Nyika. Local folk-theories of the language have often considered Swahili to be a mixed language because of its many loan words from Arabic, and the fact that Swahili people have historically been Muslims. However, historical linguists do not consider the Arabic influence on Swahili to be significant enough to classify it as a mixed language, since Arabic influence is limited to lexical items, most of which have only been borrowed after 1500, while the grammatical and syntactic structure of the language is typically Bantu.[15][16]

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: Суахили
Afrikaans: Swahili
Alemannisch: Swahili (Sprache)
አማርኛ: ስዋሂሊ
العربية: لغة سواحلية
aragonés: Idioma swahili
asturianu: Suaḥili
Avañe'ẽ: Suahíli ñe'ẽ
azərbaycanca: Suahili
تۆرکجه: سواحیلی
Bân-lâm-gú: Swahili-gí
башҡортса: Суахили теле
беларуская: Суахілі
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Суахілі
Bikol Central: Swahili
български: Суахили
Boarisch: Swahili
bosanski: Svahili (jezik)
brezhoneg: Swahileg
català: Suahili
čeština: Svahilština
Cymraeg: Swahili
dolnoserbski: Swahilšćina
español: Idioma suajili
Esperanto: Svahila lingvo
euskara: Swahili
Fiji Hindi: Swahili bhasa
føroyskt: Swahiliskt mál
français: Swahili
Gaeilge: An Svahaílis
Gaelg: Swahilish
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Swahili-ngî
한국어: 스와힐리어
հայերեն: Սվահիլի
hornjoserbsce: Swahilšćina
Bahasa Indonesia: Bahasa Swahili
interlingua: Lingua swahili
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᔅᕙᐦᐃᓕᑐᑦ
Ирон: Суахили
íslenska: Svahílí
italiano: Lingua swahili
עברית: סווהילי
Basa Jawa: Basa Swahili
kalaallisut: Swahilimiutut
ქართული: სუაჰილი ენა
қазақша: Суахили
Kinyarwanda: Igiswahili
Kiswahili: Kiswahili
Kongo: Kiswahili
Kreyòl ayisyen: Lang swahili
Кыргызча: Суахили тили
latgaļu: Svahili volūda
latviešu: Svahili
lietuvių: Suahilių kalba
Limburgs: Swahili
lingála: Kiswahíli
македонски: Свахилски јазик
Malagasy: Fiteny soahily
Māori: Reo Swahili
მარგალური: სუაჰილი ნინა
مصرى: سواحيلى
Bahasa Melayu: Bahasa Swahili
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Swahili-ngṳ̄
монгол: Свахили хэл
Nederlands: Swahili (taal)
Nedersaksies: Swahili
नेपाल भाषा: स्वाहिली भाषा
日本語: スワヒリ語
нохчийн: Суахили
Nordfriisk: Swahili
norsk: Swahili
norsk nynorsk: Swahili
Novial: Swahilum
occitan: Swahili
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Suaxili tili
پنجابی: سواحلی
Papiamentu: Swahili (lenga)
polski: Suahili
português: Língua suaíli
română: Limba swahili
Runa Simi: Swahili simi
русиньскый: Свагілі
русский: Суахили
саха тыла: Суаhили
Sesotho sa Leboa: Seswahili
sicilianu: Lingua swahili
Simple English: Swahili language
slovenčina: Swahilčina
slovenščina: Svahili
Soomaaliga: Af-Sawaaxili
српски / srpski: Свахили (језик)
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Svahili
Basa Sunda: Basa Swahili
svenska: Swahili
tarandíne: Lènga swahili
татарча/tatarça: Суахили
Türkçe: Svahili
українська: Суахілі
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: سۋاھىلىچە
Vahcuengh: Vah Swahili
Tiếng Việt: Tiếng Swahili
walon: Suwahili
Winaray: Swinahili
Wolof: Kiswahili
ייִדיש: סוואהילי
Zazaki: Swahili
Lingua Franca Nova: Suahili