Sussex

Sussex
Flag of Sussex
Flag of Sussex
Ancient extent of Sussex
Sussex within Britain
Area
 • 19011,456.89 square miles (3,773 km2)[1]
 • 20111,460.78 square miles (3,783 km2)[1]
 • Coordinates51°N 0°E / 51°N 0°E / 51; 0
Population
 • 1901602,255[1]
 • 20111,609,500[2]
Density
 • 1901413.384 inhabitants per square mile (159.608/km2)
 • 20111,101.8 inhabitants per square mile (425.4/km2)
History
 • OriginKingdom of Sussex
 • Created5th century
 • Succeeded byEast Sussex and West Sussex
StatusHistoric county (current)[3][4][5]
Ceremonial county (until 1974)
Chapman codeSSX
 • HQChichester or Lewes
 • Motto"We wunt be druv"
Subdivisions
 • TypeRapes

Sussex (s/), from the Old English Sūþsēaxe (South Saxons), is a historic county in South East England corresponding roughly in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex. It is bounded to the west by Hampshire, north by Surrey, northeast by Kent, south by the English Channel, and divided for many purposes into the ceremonial counties of West Sussex and East Sussex. Brighton and Hove, though part of East Sussex, was made a unitary authority in 1997, and as such, is administered independently of the rest of East Sussex. Brighton and Hove was granted City status in 2000. Until then, Chichester was Sussex's only city.

Sussex has three main geographic sub-regions, each oriented approximately east to west. In the southwest is the fertile and densely populated coastal plain. North of this are the rolling chalk hills of the South Downs, beyond which is the well-wooded Sussex Weald.

The name derives from the Kingdom of Sussex, which was founded, according to legend, by Ælle of Sussex in AD 477. Around 827, it was absorbed into the kingdom of Wessex[6] and subsequently into the kingdom of England. It was the home of some of Europe's earliest recorded hominids, whose remains have been found at Boxgrove. It was invaded by the Romans and is the site of the Battle of Hastings.

In 1974, the Lord-Lieutenant of Sussex was replaced with one each for East and West Sussex, which became separate ceremonial counties. Sussex continues to be recognised as a geographical territory and cultural region. It has had a single police force since 1968 and its name is in common use in the media.[7] In 2007, Sussex Day was created to celebrate the county's rich culture and history. Based on the traditional emblem of Sussex, a blue shield with six gold martlets, the flag of Sussex was recognised by the Flag Institute in 2011. In 2013, Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government Eric Pickles formally recognised and acknowledged the continued existence of England's 39 historic counties, including Sussex.[3][4][5]

Toponymy

The name "Sussex" is derived from the Middle English Suth-sæxe, which is in turn derived from the Old English Suth-Seaxe which means (land or people) of the South Saxons[8] (cf. Essex, Middlesex and Wessex). The South Saxons were a Germanic tribe that settled in the region from the North German Plain during the 5th and 6th centuries.

The earliest known usage of the term South Saxons (Latin: Australes Saxones) is in a royal charter of 689 which names them and their king, Noðhelm, although the term may well have been in use for some time before that. The monastic chronicler who wrote up the entry classifying the invasion seems to have got his dates wrong; recent scholars have suggested he might have been a quarter of a century too late.[9]

The New Latin word Suthsexia was used for Sussex by Dutch cartographer Joan Blaeu in his 1645 map.[10]

Three United States counties (in Delaware, New Jersey, and Virginia), and a former county/land division of Western Australia, are named after Sussex.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Sussex
Ænglisc: Sūþseaxe
العربية: ساسكس
Bân-lâm-gú: Sussex
беларуская: Сусекс
български: Съсекс
brezhoneg: Kontelezh Sussex
català: Sussex
Cebuano: Sussex
čeština: Sussex
Cymraeg: Sussex
dansk: Sussex
Deutsch: Sussex
Ελληνικά: Σάσσεξ
español: Sussex
Esperanto: Sussex
euskara: Sussex
فارسی: ساسکس
français: Sussex
한국어: 서식스
Ido: Sussex
Bahasa Indonesia: Sussex
italiano: Sussex
עברית: סאסקס
Latina: Sussexia
日本語: サセックス
norsk: Sussex
polski: Sussex
português: Sussex
română: Sussex
Runa Simi: Sussex
русский: Суссекс
Scots: Sussex
sicilianu: Sussex
Simple English: Sussex
slovenčina: Sussex (Anglicko)
српски / srpski: Сасекс
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Sussex
suomi: Sussex
svenska: Sussex
Türkçe: Sussex
українська: Сассекс
粵語: 修適士郡