Surah

Al-Fatiha, first Surah of the Quran to be revealed in its entirety.

A Surah (ə/;[1] also spelled Sura; Arabic: سورةsūrah, plural سور suwar) is the term for a chapter of the Quran. There are 114 Surahs in the Quran, each divided into verses.[2] The chapters or suras are of unequal length; the shortest chapter (Al-Kawthar) has only three ayat (verses) while the longest (Al-Baqara) contains 286 verses.[3] Of the 114 chapters in the Quran, 87 are classified as Meccan, while 27 are Medinan [2]. This classification is only approximate in regard to location of revelation; any chapter revealed after migration of Muhammad to Medina (Hijrah) is termed Medinan and any revealed before that event is termed Meccan. The Meccan chapters generally deal with faith and scenes of the Hereafter while the Medinan chapters are more concerned with organizing the social life of the nascent Muslim community and leading Muslims to the goal of Dar al-Islam by showing strength. Except for sura At-Tawba, all chapters or suras commence with 'In the Name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate'. This formula is known as the Bismillah and denotes the boundaries between chapters. The chapters are arranged roughly in order of descending size; therefore the arrangement of the Quran is neither chronological nor thematic. Suras (chapters) are recited during the standing portions (Qiyam) of Muslim prayers. Sura Al-Fatiha, the first chapter of the Quran, is recited in every unit of prayer and some units of prayer also involve recitation of all or part of any other sura.

Etymology

The word sura was used at the time of Muhammad as a term with the meaning of a chapter or a portion of the Quran. This is evidenced by the appearance of the word sura in multiple locations in the Quran such as verse 24:1: "A sura that We have sent down and appointed, and We have sent down in it signs, clear signs, that haply you will remember."[4] Its plural form suwar is also mentioned in the Quran: "Or do they say, He invented it? Say, "Then bring ten suwar like it and call upon whomever you can besides God, if you are truthful."[5] Nöldeke following Buxtorf suggested that the word sura has similar root with the Hebrew word 'שורה' meaning a 'row'. Some took it as connected with the Arabic word 'Sur' meaning a 'wall'. Jeffery believes that it has a common origin with a Syrian word that means 'writing'.[6]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Soera
العربية: سورة
অসমীয়া: ছূৰা
azərbaycanca: Surə
تۆرکجه: سوره
বাংলা: সূরা
башҡортса: Сүрә
беларуская: Сура (Каран)
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Сура (Каран)
български: Сура
bosanski: Sura
čeština: Súra
Cymraeg: Sŵra
dansk: Sura
Deutsch: Sure
eesti: Suura
español: Sura
Esperanto: Surao
euskara: Surah
فارسی: سوره
français: Sourate
한국어: 수라
हिन्दी: सूरा
hrvatski: Sura
Bahasa Indonesia: Surah
íslenska: Súra
italiano: Sūra
עברית: סורה
Basa Jawa: Surat
қазақша: Сүре
kurdî: Sûre
Кыргызча: Сүрө
latviešu: Sūra
lietuvių: Sura
magyar: Szúra
македонски: Сура
मराठी: सूरा
مازِرونی: سوره
Bahasa Melayu: Surah Quran
Baso Minangkabau: Surah
Nederlands: Soera
norsk: Sura
norsk nynorsk: Sura
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Sura
پښتو: سورت
polski: Sura (Koran)
português: Sura
qırımtatarca: Sure
română: Sura
русский: Сура Корана
Scots: Surah
shqip: Surja
Simple English: Sura
slovenčina: Súra
slovenščina: Sura
Soomaaliga: Suurad
کوردی: سوورەت
српски / srpski: Сура
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Sura
suomi: Suura
svenska: Sura (islam)
татарча/tatarça: Сүрә
తెలుగు: సూరా
Türkçe: Sure
українська: Сура
اردو: سورۃ
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: سۇرە
Zazaki: Sura
中文: 蘇拉