Surabaya

Surabaya
City of Surabaya
Kota Surabaya
Other transcription(s)
 • Javaneseꦯꦸꦫꦧꦪ
From top, left to right : Surabaya Central Park, Graha SA Surabaya Building, Sanggar Agung Temple, Suramadu Bridge at night, Surabaya Carnival Park, Museum 10 November, one of the Hindus temple in Surabaya (Pura Jagatnatha Perak), and UNESA Lake.
From top, left to right :
Surabaya Central Park, Graha SA Surabaya Building, Sanggar Agung Temple, Suramadu Bridge at night, Surabaya Carnival Park, Museum 10 November, one of the Hindus temple in Surabaya (Pura Jagatnatha Perak), and UNESA Lake.
Official seal of Surabaya
Seal
Nickname(s): 
Kota Pahlawan (City of Heroes)
Motto(s): 
Sparkling Surabaya
Location within East Java
Location within East Java
Surabaya is located in Java
Surabaya
Surabaya
Location in Java and Indonesia
Surabaya is located in Indonesia
Surabaya
Surabaya
Surabaya (Indonesia)
Surabaya is located in Asia
Surabaya
Surabaya
Surabaya (Asia)
Surabaya is located in Earth
Surabaya
Surabaya
Surabaya (Earth)
Coordinates: 7°15′55″S 112°44′33″E / 7°15′55″S 112°44′33″E / -7.26528; 112.74250
 • Religion[2]Islam 80.13%
Christianity 9.12%
Catholicism 8.98%
Hinduism 0.26%
Buddhism 1.49%
Confucianism 0.01%
Time zoneUTC+07:00
Postal Code
60xxx, 61xxx
Area code(+62) 31
Vehicle registrationL (for Motor vehicle), SKB (for Rickshaw)
AirportJuanda International Airport
Commuter RailSusi Commuter DMU, Sulam Commuter DMU, Jenggala DMU, KA Lokal Bojonegoro DMU, Kertosono Local Train, Arek Surokerto DMU
surabaya.go.id

Surabaya (Indonesian pronunciation: [suraˈbaja]) is the capital of East Java province in Indonesia. Surabaya is the second-largest city in Indonesia with a population of over 3 million within the city proper and over 10 million in the Greater Surabaya metropolitan area, known as Gerbangkertosusila.[1] Located on northeastern Java on the Madura Strait, it is one of the earliest port cities in Southeast Asia. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Surabaya was the largest city in the Dutch East Indies, larger than Batavia (present day Jakarta) and the centre of trading in the nation, which was then a competitor of Shanghai and Hong Kong.[3] Today the city remains one of the important financial hubs of the Indonesian archipelago, arguably second only to Jakarta, and the Port of Tanjung Perak is Indonesia's second-busiest seaport.

History

Etymology

Fighting shark and crocodile, the emblem of Surabaya city applied since colonial times, derived from local folk etymology

Surabaya alludes to a prophecy of Jayabaya, a 12th-century psychic king of Kediri Kingdom, foreseeing a fight between a giant white shark and a giant white crocodile taking place in the area, which is sometimes interpreted as foretelling the Mongol invasion of Java, a major conflict between the forces of Kublai Khan, Mongol ruler of China, and those of Raden Wijaya's Majapahit in 1293.[4][5] The two animals are now used as the city's symbol, with the two facing and circling each other, as depicted in a statue appropriately located near the entrance to the city zoo.

Alternate derivations proliferate: from the Javanese sura ing baya, meaning "bravely facing danger";[5] or from the use of surya to refer to the sun. Some people consider Jayabaya's prophecy as being about the great war between native Surabayan people and foreign invaders at the start of the war of independence in 1945. Another story tells of two heroes who fought each other to be the king of the city. The two heroes were named Sura and Baya. These folk etymologies, though embraced enthusiastically by its people and city leaders, are unverifiable.

Dutch residenthuis (resident house) along the water in Surabaya
Red Bridge area from the air in the 1920s

Early history

Map of Surabaya from an 1897 English travel guide

The Kingdom of Janggala was one of the two Javanese kingdoms that was formed in 1045 when Airlangga abdicated his throne in favour of his two sons. The earliest historical record of Surabaya was in the 1225 book Zhu fan zhi written by Zhao Rugua, in which it was called Jung-ya-lu.[6] The name Janggala was probably originated from the name "Hujung Galuh" (Old Javanese lit: "Cape Diamond" or "Cape Gemstone"), or "Jung-ya-lu" according to Chinese source. Hujung Galuh was located on the estuarine of Brantas River and today is the part of modern Surabaya city and Sidoarjo Regency.

By the 14th to 15th centuries, Surabaya seems to be one of Majapahit ports or coastal settlements, together with Tuban, Gresik, and Hujung Galuh (Sidoarjo). Ma Huan documented the early 15th-century visit of Zheng He's treasure ships in his 1433 book Yingya Shenglan: "after traveling south for more than 20 li, the ship reached Sulumayi, whose foreign name is Surabaya. At the estuary, the outflowing water is fresh".[7]

Ma Huan visited Java during Zheng He's fourth expedition in the 1413, during the reign of Majapahit king Wikramawardhana. He describes his travel to Majapahit capital, first he arrived to the port of Tu-pan (Tuban) where he saw large numbers of Chinese settlers migrated from Guangdong and Chou Chang. Then, he sailed east to thriving new trading town of Ko-erh-hsi (Gresik), Su-pa-erh-ya (Surabaya), and then sailing inland into the river by smaller boat to southwest until reached the Brantas river port of Chang-ku (Changgu). Continuing to travel by land to the southwest, he arrived in Man-che-po-I (Majapahit), where the Javanese king stayed.[8]

Precolonial era

By late 15th century, Islam began to take its root in Surabaya. The settlement of Ampel Denta, located around Ampel Mosque in today Ampel subdistrict, Semampir district, north Surabaya, was established by a charismatic Islamic proselytizer Sunan Ampel.

In the late 15th and 16th centuries, Surabaya grew to be a duchy, a major political and military power in eastern Java. The Portuguese writer Tomé Pires mentioned that a Muslim lord was in power in Surabaya in 1513, though likely still a vassal of the Hindu–Buddhist Majapahit.[9] At that time, Surabaya was already a major trading port,[10] owing to its location on the River Brantas delta and on the trade route between Malacca and the Spice Islands via the Java Sea.[11] During the decline of Majapahit, the lord of Surabaya resisted the rise of the Demak Sultanate, and only submitted to its rule in 1530.[9][12] Surabaya became independent after the death of Sultan Trenggana of Demak in 1546.[13][14]

The Duchy of Surabaya entered a conflict with, and was later captured by, the more powerful Sultanate of Mataram in 1625 under Sultan Agung.[15]:31 It was one of Mataram's fiercest campaigns, in which they had to conquer Surabaya's allies, Sukadana and Madura, and to lay siege to the city before capturing it. With this conquest, Mataram then controlled almost the whole of Java, with the exception of the Sultanate of Banten and the Dutch settlement of Batavia.[15]:31

Colonial era

The expanding Dutch East India Company took the city over from a weakened Mataram in November 1743. In consolidating its rule over Surabaya, and in time, the rest of East Java, the Dutch collaborated with leading regional magnates, including Ngabehi Soero Pernollo (1720–1776), his brother Han Bwee Kong, Kapitein der Chinezen (1727–1778), and the latter's son, Han Chan Piet, Majoor der Chinezen (1759–1827), all from the powerful Han family of Lasem.[16][17]

In the 18th and 19th centuries, Surabaya was the largest city in Dutch East Indies. It became a major trading centre under the Dutch colonial government, and hosted the largest naval base in the colony. Surabaya was also the largest city in the colony serving as the centre of Java's plantation economy, industry and were supported by its natural harbour.[18] In 1920, a census recorded that Batavia had become the largest city. In 1917, a revolt occurred among the soldiers and sailors of Surabaya, led by the Indies Social Democratic Association. The revolt was firmly crushed and the insurgents given harsh sentences.[citation needed]

Independence era

The burnt-out car of Brigadier Mallaby on the spot where he was killed by pro-independence Indonesian soldiers during the Battle of Surabaya on 31 October 1945

Japan occupied the city in 1942, as part of the occupation of Indonesia, and it was bombed by the Allies in 1944. After the Japanese surrender at the end of World War II, Surabaya was seized by Indonesian nationalists. The young nation soon came into conflict with the British, who had become caretakers of the Dutch colony after the surrender of the Japanese.

The Battle of Surabaya, one of the well-known battles of the Indonesian revolution, started after the Arek-Arek Suroboyo (Teenagers of Surabaya) assassinated the British Brigadier Mallaby on October 30, 1945, near Jembatan Merah (the "Red Bridge"), allegedly with a stray bullet. The Allies gave an ultimatum to the Republicans inside the city to surrender, but they refused. The ensuing battle, which cost thousands of lives, took place on November 10, which Indonesians subsequently celebrate as Hari Pahlawan (Heroes' Day). The incident of the red-white flag (the Dutch flag at the top of Yamato Hotel's tower that was torn into the Indonesian red-white flag) by Bung Tomo is also recorded as a heroic feat during the struggle of this city.

The city is known as Kota Pahlawan "city of heroes" due to the importance of the Battle of Surabaya in galvanizing Indonesian and international support for Indonesian independence during the Indonesian National Revolution.

In June 2011, Surabaya received the Adipura Kencana Award as number one among 20 cities in Indonesia. Surabaya was reported by a Singaporean as being clean and green.[19]

Other Languages
Acèh: Surabaya
Afrikaans: Surabaya
العربية: سورابايا
asturianu: Surabaya
azərbaycanca: Surabaya
تۆرکجه: سورابایا
Bân-lâm-gú: Surabaya
Basa Banyumasan: Kota Surabaya
башҡортса: Сурабая
беларуская: Сурабая
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Сурабая
български: Сурабая
Boarisch: Surabaya
brezhoneg: Surabaya
буряад: Сурабая
català: Surabaya
čeština: Surabaja
Chi-Chewa: Surabaya
dansk: Surabaya
Deutsch: Surabaya
eesti: Surabaya
Ελληνικά: Σουραμπάγια
español: Surabaya
Esperanto: Surabajo
euskara: Surabaya
فارسی: سورابایا
français: Surabaya
Gaeilge: Surabaya
galego: Surabaia
한국어: 수라바야
Hausa: Surabaya
հայերեն: Սուրաբայա
हिन्दी: सुराबया
hrvatski: Surabaya
Bahasa Hulontalo: Kota Surabaya
Bahasa Indonesia: Kota Surabaya
italiano: Surabaya
עברית: סורביה
Basa Jawa: Kutha Surabaya
kalaallisut: Surabaya
ქართული: სურაბაია
Kiswahili: Surabaya
Latina: Surabaya
latviešu: Surabaja
lietuvių: Surabaja
magyar: Surabaya
Malagasy: Kota Surabaya
മലയാളം: സുരബായ
Māori: Surabaya
मराठी: सुरबया
Bahasa Melayu: Kota Surabaya
日本語: スラバヤ
нохчийн: Сурабая
norsk: Surabaya
norsk nynorsk: Surabaja
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Surabaya
پنجابی: سورابایا
polski: Surabaja
português: Surabaia
română: Surabaya
русский: Сурабая
саха тыла: Сурабайа
Scots: Surabaya
shqip: Surabaya
Simple English: Surabaya
slovenščina: Surabaja
српски / srpski: Сурабаја
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Surabaja
Basa Sunda: Kota Surabaya
suomi: Surabaya
svenska: Surabaya
Tagalog: Surabaya
தமிழ்: சுராபாயா
Türkçe: Surabaya
українська: Сурабая
vepsän kel’: Surabai
Tiếng Việt: Surabaya
Winaray: Surabaya
粵語: 泗水市