Supreme Court of India

Supreme Court of India
Emblem of the Supreme Court of India.svg
Established1 October 1935; 83 years ago (1935-10-01)
(as Federal Court of India)
28 January 1950; 69 years ago (1950-01-28)
(as Supreme Court of India)[1]
LocationTilak Marg, New Delhi, Delhi
Coordinates28°37′20″N 77°14′23″E / 28°37′20″N 77°14′23″E / 28.622237; 77.239584
Chief Justice of India
CurrentlyRanjan Gogoi
Since3 October 2018
Lead position ends17 November 2019

The Supreme Court of India is the highest judicial court and the final court of appeal under the Constitution of India, the highest constitutional court, with the power of judicial review. Consisting of the Chief Justice of India and a maximum of 31 judges, it has extensive powers in the form of original, appellate and advisory jurisdictions.[3]

As the final court of appeal of the country, it takes up appeals primarily against verdicts of the high courts of various states of the Union and other courts and tribunals. It safeguards fundamental rights of citizens and settles disputes between various government authorities as well as the central government vs state governments or state governments versus another state government in the country. As an advisory court, it hears matters which may specifically be referred to it under the constitution by President of India. It also may take cognisance of matters on its own (or suo moto), without anyone drawing its attention to them. The law declared by the supreme court becomes binding on all courts within India and also by the union and state governments.[4] Per Article 142 of the constitution, it is the duty of the president to enforce the decrees of the supreme court.


In 1861, the Indian High Courts Act 1861 was enacted to create high courts for various provinces and abolished supreme courts at Calcutta, Madras and Bombay and also the sadr adalats in presidency towns which had acted as the highest courts in their respective regions. These new high courts had the distinction of being the highest courts for all cases till the creation of the Federal Court of India under the Government of India Act 1935. The Federal Court had jurisdiction to solve disputes between provinces and federal states and hear appeals against judgements of the high courts. The first CJI of India was H. J. Kania.[4]

The Supreme Court of India came into being on 28 January, 1950.[5] It replaced both the Federal Court of India and the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council which were then at the apex of the Indian court system. The first proceedings and inauguration, however, took place on 28 January, 1950 at 9:45 am, when the judges took their seats. Which is thus regarded as the official date of establishment.[6]

The Supreme Court initially had its seat at the Chamber of Princes in the parliament building where the previous Federal Court of India sat from 1937 to 1950. The first Chief Justice of India was H. J. Kania. In 1958, the Supreme Court moved to its present premises.[5] Originally, the Constitution of India envisaged a supreme court with a chief justice and seven judges; leaving it to the parliament to increase this number.[7] In formative years, the Supreme Court met from 10 to 12 in the morning and then 2 to 4 in the afternoon for 28 days in a month.[8]

Other Languages
Bahasa Indonesia: Mahkamah Agung India
Simple English: Supreme Court of India