Suicide

Suicide
Édouard Manet - Le Suicidé (ca. 1877).jpg
The Suicide by Édouard Manet
SpecialtyPsychiatry
Usual onset>70 and 15–30 years old[1]
CausesHanging, pesticide poisoning, firearms[2][3]
Risk factorsDepression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, personality disorders, anxiety disorders, alcoholism, substance abuse[2][4][5]
PreventionLimiting access to methods of suicide, treating mental disorders and substance misuse, proper media reporting of suicide, improving economic conditions[2]
Deaths828,000 / 1.5% (2015)[6]

Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.[7] Mental disorders, including depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, personality disorders, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse—including alcoholism and the use of benzodiazepines—are risk factors.[2][4][8] Some suicides are impulsive acts due to stress, such as from financial difficulties, troubles with relationships, or bullying.[2][9] Those who have previously attempted suicide are at a higher risk for future attempts.[2] Effective suicide prevention efforts include limiting access to methods of suicide—such as firearms, drugs, and poisons; treating mental disorders and substance misuse; proper media reporting of suicide; and improving economic conditions.[2][10] Even though crisis hotlines are common, there is little evidence for their effectiveness.[11][12]

The most commonly used method of suicide varies between countries, and is partly related to the availability of effective means.[13] Common methods of suicide include hanging, pesticide poisoning, and firearms.[2][3] Suicides resulted in 828,000 global deaths in 2015, an increase from 712,000 deaths in 1990.[6][14] This makes suicide the 10th leading cause of death worldwide.[4][15]

Approximately 0.5% of people die by suicide.[16] In a given year this is roughly 12 per 100,000 people.[15] Three quarters of suicides globally occur in the low and middle income countries.[2] Rates of completed suicides are generally higher among men than among women, ranging from 1.5 times as much in the developing world to 3.5 times in the developed world.[1] Suicide is generally most common among those over the age of 70; however, in certain countries, those aged between 15 and 30 are at the highest risk.[1] Europe had the highest rates of suicide by region in 2015.[17] There are an estimated 10 to 20 million non-fatal attempted suicides every year.[18] Non-fatal suicide attempts may lead to injury and long-term disabilities.[16] In the Western world, attempts are more common among young people and among females.[16]

Views on suicide have been influenced by broad existential themes such as religion, honor, and the meaning of life.[19][20] The Abrahamic religions traditionally consider suicide as an offense towards God, due to the belief in the sanctity of life.[21] During the samurai era in Japan, a form of suicide known as seppuku (harakiri) was respected as a means of making up for failure or as a form of protest.[22] Sati, a practice outlawed by the British Raj, expected the Indian widow to kill herself on her husband's funeral fire, either willingly or under pressure from her family and society.[23] Suicide and attempted suicide, while previously illegal, are no longer so in most Western countries.[24] It remains a criminal offense in many countries.[25] In the 20th and 21st centuries, suicide has been used on rare occasions as a form of protest, and kamikaze and suicide bombings have been used as a military or terrorist tactic.[26]

Definitions

Suicide, from Latin suicidium, is "the act of taking one's own life".[7][27] Attempted suicide or non-fatal suicidal behavior is self-injury with the desire to end one's life that does not result in death.[28] Assisted suicide is when one individual helps another bring about their own death indirectly via providing either advice or the means to the end.[29] This is in contrast to euthanasia, where another person takes a more active role in bringing about a person's death.[29] Suicidal ideation is thoughts of ending one's life but not taking any active efforts to do so.[28] In a murder-suicide (or homicide-suicide), the individual aims at taking the life of others at the same time. A special case of this is extended suicide, where the murder is motivated by seeing the murdered persons as an extension of their self.[30] Suicide in which the reason is that the person feels that they are not part of society is known as egoistic suicide.[31]

The normal verb in scholarly research and journalism for the act of suicide is commit.[32][33] Some advocacy groups recommend saying completed suicide, took his/her own life, died by suicide, or killed him/herself instead of committed suicide.[34][35][36][37] Opponents of commit argue that it implies that suicide is criminal, sinful, or morally wrong.[38]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Selfmoord
Alemannisch: Suizid
العربية: انتحار
aragonés: Suicidio
অসমীয়া: আত্মহত্যা
asturianu: Suicidiu
azərbaycanca: İntihar
تۆرکجه: اینتیحار
Bân-lâm-gú: Chū-sat
беларуская: Самагубства
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Самагубства
Bikol Central: Paghugot
български: Самоубийство
Boarisch: Freidoud
bosanski: Samoubistvo
brezhoneg: Emlazh
català: Suïcidi
čeština: Sebevražda
Chi-Chewa: Kudzipha
Cymraeg: Hunanladdiad
dansk: Selvmord
Deutsch: Suizid
eesti: Enesetapp
Ελληνικά: Αυτοκτονία
español: Suicidio
Esperanto: Sinmortigo
euskara: Suizidio
فارسی: خودکشی
Fiji Hindi: Suicide
føroyskt: Sjálvmorð
français: Suicide
Frysk: Selsmoard
Gaeilge: Féinmharú
galego: Suicidio
한국어: 자살
हिन्दी: आत्महत्या
hrvatski: Samoubojstvo
Bahasa Indonesia: Bunuh diri
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᐱᓴᕐᓂᖅ
íslenska: Sjálfsmorð
italiano: Suicidio
עברית: התאבדות
Jawa: Nglalu
Kirundi: Kwiyahura
Kiswahili: Kujiua
Kreyòl ayisyen: Swisid
latviešu: Pašnāvība
Lëtzebuergesch: Suizid
lietuvių: Savižudybė
Limburgs: Zelfmaord
македонски: Самоубиство
മലയാളം: ആത്മഹത്യ
Bahasa Melayu: Bunuh diri
Nederlands: Zelfmoord
Nedersaksies: Zölfmoord
नेपाली: आत्महत्या
नेपाल भाषा: आत्महत्या
日本語: 自殺
norsk: Selvmord
norsk nynorsk: Sjølvmord
occitan: Suicidi
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Oʻzini oʻldirish
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਖ਼ੁਦਕੁਸ਼ੀ
پنجابی: خودکشی
پښتو: ځانوژنه
Patois: Suisaid
polski: Samobójstwo
português: Suicídio
română: Sinucidere
Runa Simi: Sipikuy
русский: Самоубийство
Scots: Suicide
Simple English: Suicide
سنڌي: خودڪشي
slovenčina: Samovražda
slovenščina: Samomor
Soomaaliga: Ismiidaamin
کوردی: خۆکوشتن
српски / srpski: Самоубиство
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Samoubistvo
Basa Sunda: Nelasan manéh
suomi: Itsemurha
svenska: Självmord
தமிழ்: தற்கொலை
татарча/tatarça: Үз-үзенә кул салу
తెలుగు: ఆత్మహత్య
тоҷикӣ: Худкушӣ
Türkçe: İntihar
українська: Самогубство
اردو: خود کشی
Vahcuengh: Gaggaj
Tiếng Việt: Tự sát
文言: 自殺
Winaray: Unay
Wolof: Xaru
吴语: 自杀
ייִדיש: זעלבסטמארד
粵語: 自殺
Zazaki: Xokıştış
žemaitėška: Savėžodībė
中文: 自殺