Sudan

Republic of the Sudan
جمهورية السودان
Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān
  (Arabic)
Motto: النصر لنا (Arabic)
"An-Naṣr lanā"
"Victory is ours"
Anthem: 
Sudan in dark green, disputed regions in light green.
Sudan in dark green, disputed regions in light green.
Location of Sudan
Capital
and largest city
Khartoum
15°38′N 032°32′E / 15°38′N 032°32′E / 15.633; 32.533
Official languages
ReligionIslam
DemonymSudanese
Government

Federal dominant-party presidential republic (de jure)

One-party state under an authoritarian dictatorship (de facto)[2]
Omar al-Bashir
Bakri Hassan Saleh
Bakri Hassan Saleh
Hassabu Mohamed Abdalrahman
LegislatureNational Legislature
Council of States
National Assembly
Formation
1504[3]
1820-74
1899
• Independence
1 January 1956
9 January 2005
• Secession of South Sudan
9 July 2011
Area
• Total
1,886,068 km2 (728,215 sq mi) (15th)
Population
• 2016 estimate
39,578,828[4] (35th)
• 2008 census
30,894,000 (disputed) [5]
• Density
21.3/km2 (55.2/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$197.825 billion[6]
• Per capita
$4,700[6]
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$138.090 billion[6]
• Per capita
$3,459[6]
Gini (2009)35.3[7]
medium
HDI (2015)Increase 0.490[8]
low · 165th
CurrencySudanese pound (SDG)
Time zoneCAT (UTC+2)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Drives on theright
Calling code+249
ISO 3166 codeSD
Internet TLD.sd, سودان.

The Sudan or Sudan (US: n/ (About this sound listen), UK: n/;[9][10] Arabic: السودانas-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan[11] (Arabic: جمهورية السودانJumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa. It is bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea, Eritrea and Ethiopia to the east, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the southwest, Chad to the west and Libya to the northwest. It houses 37 million people (2017)[12] and occupies a total area of 1.861.484 square kilometres (718.722 square miles), making it the third largest country in Africa.[13] Sudan's predominant religion is Islam,[14] and its official languages are Arabic and English. The capital is Khartoum, located at the confluence of the Blue and White Nile.

The history of Sudan goes back to Antiquity, when the Meroitic-speaking Kingdom of Kush controlled northern and central Sudan and, for nearly a century, even Egypt. After its fall in the mid 4th century AD the Nubians formed the three Christian kingdoms of Nobatia, Makuria and Alodia. While the Nubians managed to defeat the invading Rashidun Caliphate in 642 and 652 Muslim Arabs still began to settle in Sudan: first at the Sudanese Red Sea coast and the adjacent Eastern Desert and finally, in the 14th and 15th century, in the Nile Valley. After 1365 Makuria had largely collapsed, while Alodia was conquered in c. 1500 by either Arabs or the African Funj.

Afterwards central and eastern Sudan were dominated by the Funj sultanate, while Darfur ruled the west and the Ottomans the far north. Christianity got replaced by Sufi Islam, while the Nubians living upstream of Al Dabbah and in Kordofan were also Arabized; two processes largely completed by the 19th century. From 1820 to 1874 the entirety of Sudan was conquered by the Muhammad Ali dynasty. Between 1881 and 1885 the harsh Egyptian reign was eventually met with a successful revolt led by the self-proclaimed Mahdi Muhammad Ahmad, resulting in the establishment of the Caliphate of Omdurman. This state lasted until 1899, when it was destroyed by the British Empire. Afterwards Sudan was governed by the Anglo-Egyptian condominium.

The 20th century saw the growth of Sudanese nationalism and in 1953 Britain granted Sudan self-government. Independence was proclaimed on January 1, 1956. Since independence, Sudan has been ruled by a series of unstable parliamentary governments and military regimes. Under Gaafar Nimeiri, Sudan instituted fundamentalist Islamic law in 1983.[15] This exacerbated the rift between the Arab north, the seat of the government and the black African animists and Christians in the south. Differences in language, religion, ethnicity and political power erupted in a civil war between government forces, strongly influenced by the National Islamic Front (NIF) and the southern rebels, whose most influential faction was the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA), eventually concluding in the independence of South Sudan in 2011. Before the Sudanese Civil War, South Sudan was part of Sudan, but it became independent in 2011.[16] Since 2011 Sudan's government is engaged in a war with the Sudan Revolutionary Front. Human rights violations, religious persecution and allegations that Sudan had been a safe haven for terrorists isolated the country from most of the international community. In 1995, the United Nations (UN) imposed sanctions against it.

Etymology

The country's place name Sudan is a name given to a geographical region to the south of the Sahara, stretching from Western Africa to eastern Central Africa. The name derives from the Arabic bilād as-sūdān (بلاد السودان), or "the lands of the Blacks".[17] The name is one of several toponyms sharing similar etymologies, ultimately meaning "land of the blacks" or similar meanings, in reference to the dark skin of the inhabitants.

Other Languages
Acèh: Sudan
Адыгэбзэ: Судан
адыгабзэ: Судан
Afrikaans: Soedan
Akan: Sudan
Alemannisch: Sudan
አማርኛ: ሱዳን
Ænglisc: Sudan
العربية: السودان
aragonés: Sudán
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܣܘܕܐܢ
arpetan: Sodan
asturianu: Sudán
Avañe'ẽ: Sudano
azərbaycanca: Sudan
تۆرکجه: سودان
bamanankan: Sudan
বাংলা: সুদান
Bahasa Banjar: Sudan
Bân-lâm-gú: Sudan
башҡортса: Судан
беларуская: Судан
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Судан
भोजपुरी: सूडान
Bikol Central: Sudan
български: Судан
Boarisch: Sudan
བོད་ཡིག: སུའུ་ཏན།
bosanski: Sudan
brezhoneg: Soudan
буряад: Судан
català: Sudan
Чӑвашла: Судан
Cebuano: Sudan
čeština: Súdán
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Sudán
Chi-Chewa: Sudan
chiShona: Sudan
corsu: Sudan
Cymraeg: Swdan
dansk: Sudan
davvisámegiella: Sudan
Deitsch: Sudan
Deutsch: Sudan
ދިވެހިބަސް: ސޫދާން
dolnoserbski: Sudan
eesti: Sudaan
Ελληνικά: Σουδάν
español: Sudán
Esperanto: Sudano
estremeñu: Sudán
euskara: Sudan
eʋegbe: Sudã
فارسی: سودان
Fiji Hindi: Sudan
føroyskt: Sudan
français: Soudan
Frysk: Sûdan
Gaeilge: An tSúdáin
Gaelg: Yn Toodaan
Gagauz: Sudan
Gàidhlig: Sudan
galego: Sudán
Gĩkũyũ: Sũdana
ગુજરાતી: સુદાન
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: सुदान
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Sudan
한국어: 수단
Hausa: Sudan
Հայերեն: Սուդան
हिन्दी: सूडान
hornjoserbsce: Sudan
hrvatski: Sudan
Ido: Sudan
Igbo: Sudan
Ilokano: Sudan
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: সুদান
Bahasa Indonesia: Sudan
interlingua: Sudan
Interlingue: Sudan
Ирон: Судан
isiZulu: ISudan
íslenska: Súdan
italiano: Sudan
עברית: סודאן
Basa Jawa: Sudan
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಸುಡಾನ್
Kapampangan: Sudan
ქართული: სუდანი
қазақша: Судан
kernowek: Soudan
Kinyarwanda: Sudani
Kiswahili: Sudan
Kongo: Sudan
Kreyòl ayisyen: Soudan
kurdî: Sûdan
Кыргызча: Судан
кырык мары: Судан
Ladino: Sudan
лезги: Судан
Latina: Sudania
latviešu: Sudāna
Lëtzebuergesch: Sudan
lietuvių: Sudanas
Ligure: Sudan
Limburgs: Soedan
lingála: Sudani
Livvinkarjala: Sudan
la .lojban.: sudan
Luganda: Sudaani
lumbaart: Sudan
magyar: Szudán
македонски: Судан
Malagasy: Sodana
മലയാളം: സുഡാൻ
Malti: Sudan
मराठी: सुदान
მარგალური: სუდანი
مصرى: السودان
مازِرونی: سودان
Bahasa Melayu: Sudan
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Sudan
монгол: Судан
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဆူဒန်နိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Sudan
Dorerin Naoero: Tudan
Nederlands: Soedan
Nedersaksies: Soedan
नेपाली: सुडान
नेपाल भाषा: सुदान
日本語: スーダン
нохчийн: Судан
Nordfriisk: Sudaan
Norfuk / Pitkern: Sudan
norsk: Sudan
norsk nynorsk: Sudan
Novial: Sudan
occitan: Sodan
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ସୁଦାନ
Oromoo: Sudaan
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Sudan
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸੁਡਾਨ
पालि: सूडान
پنجابی: سوڈان
Papiamentu: Sudan
پښتو: سوډان
Patois: Sudan
Piemontèis: Sudan
Plattdüütsch: Sudan
polski: Sudan
português: Sudão
Qaraqalpaqsha: Sudan
qırımtatarca: Sudan
română: Sudan
rumantsch: Sudan
Runa Simi: Sudan
русиньскый: Судан
русский: Судан
саха тыла: Судаан
Gagana Samoa: Sudan
संस्कृतम्: सूडान
Sängö: Sudäan
sardu: Sudan
Scots: Sudan
Seeltersk: Sudan
Sesotho: Sudan
Sesotho sa Leboa: Sudan
shqip: Sudani
sicilianu: Sudan
Simple English: Sudan
SiSwati: ISudani
slovenčina: Sudán
slovenščina: Sudan
ślůnski: Sudan
Soomaaliga: Suudaan
کوردی: سوودان
српски / srpski: Судан
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Sudan
Basa Sunda: Sudan
suomi: Sudan
svenska: Sudan
Tagalog: Sudan
தமிழ்: சூடான்
Taqbaylit: Sudan
tarandíne: Sudan
татарча/tatarça: Судан
తెలుగు: సూడాన్
ትግርኛ: ሱዳን
тоҷикӣ: Судон
Türkçe: Sudan
Türkmençe: Sudan
Thuɔŋjäŋ: Thudän
українська: Судан
اردو: سوڈان
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: سۇدان
vèneto: Sudan
vepsän kel’: Sudan
Tiếng Việt: Sudan
Volapük: Sudän
Võro: Sudaan
文言: 蘇丹
Winaray: Sudan
Wolof: Sudaan
吴语: 苏丹
Xitsonga: Sudan
ייִדיש: סודאן
Yorùbá: Sudan
粵語: 蘇丹
Zazaki: Sudan
Zeêuws: Soedan
žemaitėška: Sudans
डोटेली: सुडान
ГӀалгӀай: Судан
Kabɩyɛ: Sudaanɩ
Lingua Franca Nova: Sudan