Submarine volcanoes are underwater vents or fissures in the
The presence of water can greatly alter the characteristics of a volcanic eruption and the explosions of underwater volcanoes in comparison to those on land.
For instance, water causes magma to cool and solidify much more quickly than in a terrestrial eruption, often turning it into
Below ocean depths of about 2200 m, where the pressure exceeds the
The critical temperature and pressure increase in solutions of salts, which are normally present in the seawater. The composition of aqueous solution in the vicinity of hot basalt, and circulating within the conduits of hot rocks, is expected to differ from that of bulk water (i.e., of sea water away from the hot surfaces). One estimation is that the critical point is 407 °C and 29.9 MPa, while the solution composition corresponds to that of approximately 3.2% of NaCl.