Stockholm

Stockholm
City
Aerial view of the Old Town, Skeppsbron, Stockholm City Hall, Hötorget buildings, Ericsson Globe and Stockholm Palace.
Flag of Stockholm
Flag
Official logo of Stockholm
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): Eken, the Venice of the North, the Venice of Scandinavia,[1] Mälardrottningen
Stockholm is located in Sweden
Stockholm
Stockholm
Location of Stockholm in Sweden
Stockholm is located in Europe
Stockholm
Stockholm
Stockholm (Europe)
Stockholm is located in Earth
Stockholm
Stockholm
Stockholm (Earth)
Coordinates: 59°19′46″N 18°4′7″E / 59°19′46″N 18°4′7″E / 59.32944; 18.06861
CountrySweden
ProvinceSödermanland and Uppland
CountyStockholm County
Municipalities
First mention1252
Charter13th century
Government
 • MayorAnna König Jerlmyr (M)
Area[2]
 • City188 km2 (73 sq mi)
 • Urban381.63 km2 (147.35 sq mi)
 • Metro6,519 km2 (2,517 sq mi)
Elevation0 m (0 ft)
Population (2014)[3][4][5]
 • City952,058
 • Density5,100/km2 (13,000/sq mi)
 • Urban[6]1,538,517
 • Urban density4,000/km2 (10,000/sq mi)
 • Metro2,315,612
 • Metro density360/km2 (920/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Stockholmer
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code100 00-199 99
Area code(s)+46-8
GDP(Nominal)[7]US$167 billion
GDP(Nominal) per capita€65,700 (US$74,000)
Websitewww.stockholm.se

Stockholm[a] is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries;[9][b] 952,058 people live in the municipality,[10] approximately 1.5 million in the urban area,[5] and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.[11] The city stretches across fourteen islands where Lake Mälaren flows into the Baltic Sea. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago. The area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, and was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is also the capital of Stockholm County. Stockholm is the only capital in the world with a national urban park.[12]

Stockholm is the cultural, media, political, and economic centre of Sweden. The Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP,[13] and is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita.[14] It is an important global city,[15][16] and the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region.[17] The city is home to some of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).[18][19] It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the city's most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia.[20][21] The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for the decor of its stations; it has been called the longest art gallery in the world.[22][23][24] Sweden's national football arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city. The city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, and hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies,[25] including the highest courts in the judiciary,[26][27] and the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister. The government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag (Swedish parliament) is seated in the Parliament House, and the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at the Sager House.[28][29][30] The Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while the Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence.[31][32]

History

Detail of engraving of Stockholm from Suecia Antiqua et Hodierna by Erik Dahlbergh and Willem Swidde, printed in 1693.
Panorama over Stockholm around 1868 as seen from a hot air balloon.
Stockholm in 1917
The Old Town of Stockholm (Gamla stan)

After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BC, there were already many people living in what is today the Stockholm area, but as temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved south. Thousands of years later, as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable and the lands became fertile, people began to migrate back to the North. At the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings. They had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created.

Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, and in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne. The earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name (stock) means log in Swedish, although it may also be connected to an old German word (Stock) meaning fortification. The second part of the name (holm) means islet, and is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. According to Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren in the summer of 1187.[33]

Stockholm's core, the present Old Town (Gamla Stan) was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid-13th century onward. The city originally rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Hamburg, Gdańsk, Visby, Reval, and Riga during this time[citation needed]. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were selected from the town's German-speaking burghers.

The strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8 November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that eventually led to the breakup of the Kalmar Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600.

The 17th century saw Sweden grow into a major European power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were also created that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories. In 1697, Tre Kronor (castle) burned and was replaced by Stockholm Palace.

In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 (36 percent) of the population.[34] After the end of the Great Northern War the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed. The city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power. However, Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III.

By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm had regained its leading economic role. New industries emerged and Stockholm was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden. The population also grew dramatically during this time, mainly through immigration. At the end of the 19th century, less than 40% of the residents were Stockholm-born. Settlement began to expand outside the city limits. The 19th century saw the establishment of a number of scientific institutes, including the Karolinska Institutet. The General Art and Industrial Exposition was held in 1897. From 1887 to 1953 the Old Stockholm telephone tower was a landmark; originally built to link phone lines, it became redundant after these were buried, and it was latterly used for advertising.

Stockholm City Centre after the 1960s.

Stockholm became a modern, technologically advanced, and ethnically diverse city in the latter half of the 20th century. Many historical buildings were torn down during the modernist era, including substantial parts of the historical district of Klara, and replaced with modern architecture. However, in many other parts of Stockholm (such as in Gamla stan, Södermalm, Östermalm, Kungsholmen and Vasastan), many "old" buildings, blocks and streets built before the modernism and functionalism movements took off in Sweden (around 1930–35) survived this era of demolition. Throughout the century, many industries shifted away from industrial activities into more high-tech and service industry areas.

Currently, Stockholm's metropolitan area is one of the fastest growing regions in Europe, and its population is expected to number 2.5 million by 2024. As a result of this massive population growth, there has been a proposal to build densely packed high-rise buildings in the city centre connected by elevated walkways.[35]

Other Languages
Acèh: Stockholm
Адыгэбзэ: Стокголм
Afrikaans: Stockholm
Akan: Stockholm
Alemannisch: Stockholm
አማርኛ: ስቶኮልም
Ænglisc: Stoccholm
Аҧсшәа: Стоқҳольм
العربية: ستوكهولم
aragonés: Estocolmo
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܣܛܘܩܗܘܠܡ
armãneashti: Stockholm
arpetan: Stockholm
asturianu: Estocolmu
Avañe'ẽ: Estocolmo
Aymar aru: Stockholm
azərbaycanca: Stokholm
تۆرکجه: استکهلم
bamanankan: Stokolm
বাংলা: স্টকহোম
Bân-lâm-gú: Stockholm
башҡортса: Стокгольм
беларуская: Стакгольм
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Стакгольм
Bikol Central: Stockholm
Bislama: Stockholm
български: Стокхолм
Boarisch: Stockholm
bosanski: Stockholm
brezhoneg: Stockholm
буряад: Стокһольм
català: Estocolm
Чӑвашла: Стокгольм
Cebuano: Estokolmo
čeština: Stockholm
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Estocolmo
chiShona: Stockholm
corsu: Stoccolma
Cymraeg: Stockholm
dansk: Stockholm
davvisámegiella: Stockholbma
Deutsch: Stockholm
dolnoserbski: Stockholm
eesti: Stockholm
Ελληνικά: Στοκχόλμη
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Stucólma
español: Estocolmo
Esperanto: Stokholmo
estremeñu: Estocolmu
euskara: Stockholm
eʋegbe: Stockholm
فارسی: استکهلم
Fiji Hindi: Stockholm
føroyskt: Stokkhólmur
français: Stockholm
Frysk: Stokholm
Gaeilge: Stócólm
Gaelg: Stockholm
Gagauz: Stockholm
Gàidhlig: Stockholm
galego: Estocolmo
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Stockholm
한국어: 스톡홀름
Hausa: Stockholm
Hawaiʻi: Kekokehome
հայերեն: Ստոկհոլմ
हिन्दी: स्टॉकहोम
hornjoserbsce: Stockholm
hrvatski: Stockholm
Igbo: Stockholm
Ilokano: Stockholm
Bahasa Indonesia: Stockholm
interlingua: Stockholm
Interlingue: Stockholm
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᔅᑑᒃᓱᓪᒻ
isiZulu: IStokholmu
íslenska: Stokkhólmur
italiano: Stoccolma
עברית: סטוקהולם
Basa Jawa: Stockholm
kalaallisut: Stockholm
ქართული: სტოკჰოლმი
kaszëbsczi: Sztokhòlm
қазақша: Стокгольм
kernowek: Stockholm
Kiswahili: Stockholm
Kongo: Stockholm
Kreyòl ayisyen: Stokolm
kurdî: Stokholm
Кыргызча: Стокгольм
кырык мары: Стокгольм
Ladino: Estokolma
لۊری شومالی: ئستوکھولم
Latina: Holmia
latviešu: Stokholma
Lëtzebuergesch: Stockholm
lietuvių: Stokholmas
Ligure: Stoccolma
Limburgs: Stockholm
lingála: Stockholm
Livvinkarjala: Stokgol'mu
lumbaart: Stuculma
magyar: Stockholm
मैथिली: स्टकहोम
македонски: Стокхолм
Malagasy: Stockholm
Malti: Stokkolma
Māori: Stockholm
मराठी: स्टॉकहोम
მარგალური: სტოკჰოლმი
مازِرونی: استکهلم
Bahasa Melayu: Stockholm
Baso Minangkabau: Stockholm
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Stockholm
мокшень: Стокольма
монгол: Стокхольм
မြန်မာဘာသာ: စတော့ဟုမ်းမြို့
Dorerin Naoero: Stockholm
Nederlands: Stockholm
Nedersaksies: Stockholm
नेपाली: स्टकहोम
नेपाल भाषा: स्तकहोम
нохчийн: Стокгольм
Nordfriisk: Stockholm
Norfuk / Pitkern: Stockholm
norsk: Stockholm
norsk nynorsk: Stockholm
Nouormand: Stockholm
occitan: Estocòlme
олык марий: Стокгольм
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Stokgolm
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸਟਾਕਹੋਮ
پنجابی: سٹاکہوم
Papiamentu: Stockholm
Patois: Stakuom
Перем Коми: Стёколна
Picard: Stockholm
Piemontèis: Stocòlma
Tok Pisin: Stockholm
Plattdüütsch: Stockholm
polski: Sztokholm
português: Estocolmo
reo tahiti: Stockolm
română: Stockholm
rumantsch: Stockholm
Runa Simi: Stockholm
русиньскый: Штокголм
русский: Стокгольм
саха тыла: Стокhольм
Sängö: Stockholm
sardu: Stoccolma
Scots: Stockholm
Seeltersk: Stockholm
shqip: Stokholmi
sicilianu: Stoccolma
Simple English: Stockholm
slovenčina: Štokholm
slovenščina: Stockholm
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Стоколмъ
ślůnski: Sztokholm
Soomaaliga: Stockholm
کوردی: ستۆکھۆڵم
Sranantongo: Stockholm
српски / srpski: Стокхолм
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Stockholm
Basa Sunda: Stockholm
suomi: Tukholma
svenska: Stockholm
Tagalog: Estokolmo
Taqbaylit: Stukulm
tarandíne: Stoccolme
татарча/tatarça: Стокһольм
tetun: Estokolmu
тоҷикӣ: Стокҳолм
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᏍᏔᎧᎰᎻ
Türkçe: Stockholm
Türkmençe: Stokgolm
удмурт: Стокгольм
українська: Стокгольм
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Stokgolm
vèneto: Stocólma
vepsän kel’: Stokhol'm
Tiếng Việt: Stockholm
Volapük: Stockholm
Võro: Stokholm
walon: Stocom
West-Vlams: Stockholm
Winaray: Estokolmo
Wolof: Stokolm
ייִדיש: שטאקהאלם
Yorùbá: Stockholm
Zazaki: Stokholm
Zeêuws: Stockholm
žemaitėška: Stuokhuolms
डोटेली: स्टकहोम
Kabɩyɛ: Stɔkhɔlm