## Stephen Hawking |

**Stephen William Hawking** ^{[15]}^{[16]} His scientific works included a collaboration with ^{[17]}^{[18]}

Hawking was a * A Brief History of Time* appeared on the British

Hawking had a rare early-onset slow-progressing form of ^{[19]}^{[20]} Even after the loss of his speech, he was still able to communicate through a ^{[21]}^{[22]}

- early life and education
- career
- personal life
- death
- personal views
- appearances in popular media
- awards and honours
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- external links

Hawking was born on 8 January 1942^{[23]} in ^{[24]} and Isobel Eileen Hawking (née Walker; 1915–2013).^{[25]}^{[26]}^{[27]} Hawking's mother was born into a family of doctors in ^{[28]}^{[29]} His wealthy paternal great-grandfather, from Yorkshire, had over-extended himself buying farm land and then gone bankrupt in the ^{[29]} His paternal great-grandmother saved the family from financial ruin by opening a school in their home.^{[29]} Despite their families' financial constraints, both parents attended the ^{[26]} Isobel worked as a secretary for a medical research institute, and Frank was a medical researcher.^{[26]}^{[30]} Hawking had two younger sisters, Philippa and Mary, and an adopted brother, Edward Frank David (1955–2003).^{[31]}^{[32]}

In 1950, when Hawking's father became head of the division of ^{[33]}^{[34]} In St Albans, the family was considered highly intelligent and somewhat eccentric;^{[33]}^{[35]} meals were often spent with each person silently reading a book.^{[33]} They lived a frugal existence in a large, cluttered, and poorly maintained house and travelled in a converted London taxicab.^{[36]}^{[37]} During one of Hawking's father's frequent absences working in Africa,^{[38]} the rest of the family spent four months in ^{[39]}

Hawking began his schooling at the Byron House School in ^{[40]}^{[33]} In St Albans, the eight-year-old Hawking attended ^{[39]}^{[41]}

Hawking attended two ^{[41]} and from September 1952, ^{[23]}^{[42]} after passing the ^{[43]} The family placed a high value on education.^{[33]} Hawking's father wanted his son to attend the well-regarded ^{[44]}^{[45]} A positive consequence was that Hawking remained with a close group of friends with whom he enjoyed board games, the manufacture of fireworks, model aeroplanes and boats,^{[46]} and long discussions about Christianity and ^{[47]} From 1958 on, with the help of the mathematics teacher ^{[48]}^{[49]}

Although known at school as "Einstein", Hawking was not initially successful academically.^{[50]} With time, he began to show considerable aptitude for scientific subjects and, inspired by Tahta, decided to read mathematics at university.^{[51]}^{[52]}^{[53]} Hawking's father advised him to study medicine, concerned that there were few jobs for mathematics graduates.^{[54]} He also wanted his son to attend * alma mater*. As it was not possible to read mathematics there at the time, Hawking decided to study physics and chemistry. Despite his headmaster's advice to wait until the next year, Hawking was awarded a scholarship after taking the examinations in March 1959.

Hawking began his university education at University College, Oxford,^{[23]} in October 1959 at the age of 17.^{[57]} For the first 18 months, he was bored and lonely – he found the academic work "ridiculously easy".^{[58]}^{[59]} His physics tutor, Robert Berman, later said, "It was only necessary for him to know that something could be done, and he could do it without looking to see how other people did it."^{[3]} A change occurred during his second and third year when, according to Berman, Hawking made more of an effort "to be one of the boys". He developed into a popular, lively and witty college member, interested in classical music and science fiction.^{[57]} Part of the transformation resulted from his decision to join the college boat club, the ^{[60]}^{[61]} The rowing coach at the time noted that Hawking cultivated a daredevil image, steering his crew on risky courses that led to damaged boats.^{[62]}^{[60]}

Hawking estimated that he studied about 1,000 hours during his three years at Oxford. These unimpressive study habits made sitting his ^{[63]}^{[64]} Anxious, he slept poorly the night before the examinations, and the final result was on the borderline between first- and second-class honours, making a * viva* (oral examination) necessary.

Hawking's first year as a doctoral student was difficult. He was initially disappointed to find that he had been assigned ^{[69]}^{[70]} and he found his training in mathematics inadequate for work in ^{[71]} After being diagnosed with motor neurone disease, Hawking fell into a depression – though his doctors advised that he continue with his studies, he felt there was little point.^{[72]} His disease progressed more slowly than doctors had predicted. Although Hawking had difficulty walking unsupported, and his speech was almost unintelligible, an initial diagnosis that he had only two years to live proved unfounded. With Sciama's encouragement, he returned to his work.^{[73]}^{[74]} Hawking started developing a reputation for brilliance and brashness when he publicly challenged the work of Fred Hoyle and his student ^{[75]}^{[76]}

When Hawking began his graduate studies, there was much debate in the physics community about the prevailing theories of the creation of the universe: the ^{[77]} Inspired by ^{[78]}^{[79]} Hawking's thesis^{[80]} was approved in 1966.^{[80]} There were other positive developments: Hawking received a research fellowship at ^{[81]} he obtained his PhD degree in applied mathematics and theoretical physics, specialising in general relativity and cosmology, in March 1966;^{[82]} and his essay "Singularities and the Geometry of Space-Time" shared top honours with one by Penrose to win that year's prestigious ^{[83]}^{[82]}

Other Languages

Afrikaans: Stephen Hawking

Alemannisch: Stephen Hawking

العربية: ستيفن هوكينج

armãneashti: Stephen Hawking

অসমীয়া: ষ্টিফেন হকিং

asturianu: Stephen Hawking

Avañe'ẽ: Stephen Hawking

azərbaycanca: Stiven Hokinq

تۆرکجه: استیون هاوکینق

বাংলা: স্টিভেন হকিং

Bân-lâm-gú: Stephen Hawking

беларуская: Стывен Уільям Хокінг

भोजपुरी: स्टीफन हॉकिंग

Bikol Central: Stephen Hawking

български: Стивън Хокинг

bosanski: Stephen Hawking

brezhoneg: Stephen Hawking

català: Stephen Hawking

Чӑвашла: Стивен Хокинг

čeština: Stephen Hawking

Cymraeg: Stephen Hawking

dansk: Stephen Hawking

Deutsch: Stephen Hawking

eesti: Stephen Hawking

Ελληνικά: Στήβεν Χόκινγκ

español: Stephen Hawking

Esperanto: Stephen Hawking

estremeñu: Stephen Hawking

euskara: Stephen Hawking

فارسی: استیون هاوکینگ

føroyskt: Stephen Hawking

français: Stephen Hawking

Frysk: Stephen Hawking

Gaeilge: Stephen Hawking

Gàidhlig: Stephen Hawking

galego: Stephen Hawking

한국어: 스티븐 호킹

Հայերեն: Սթիվեն Հոքինգ

हिन्दी: स्टीफन हॉकिंग

hrvatski: Stephen Hawking

Ido: Stephen Hawking

Bahasa Indonesia: Stephen Hawking

íslenska: Stephen Hawking

italiano: Stephen Hawking

עברית: סטיבן הוקינג

Basa Jawa: Stephen Hawking

ಕನ್ನಡ: ಸ್ಟೀಫನ್ ಹಾಕಿಂಗ್

ქართული: სტივენ ჰოკინგი

қазақша: Стивен Хокинг

Kiswahili: Stephen Hawking

Kreyòl ayisyen: Stephen Hawking

Latina: Stephanus Hawking

latviešu: Stīvens Hokings

Lëtzebuergesch: Stephen Hawking

lietuvių: Stephen Hawking

lumbaart: Stephen Hawking

magyar: Stephen Hawking

मैथिली: स्टिफन हकिङ

македонски: Стивен Хокинг

Malagasy: Stephen Hawking

മലയാളം: സ്റ്റീഫൻ ഹോക്കിങ്

मराठी: स्टीफन हॉकिंग

მარგალური: სტივენ ჰოკინგი

مصرى: ستيفن هوكينج

مازِرونی: استیون هاوکینگ

Bahasa Melayu: Stephen Hawking

Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Stephen Hawking

монгол: Стивен Хокинг

မြန်မာဘာသာ: စတီဖင်ဟော့ကင်း

Nāhuatl: Stephen Hawking

Nederlands: Stephen Hawking

नेपाली: स्टिफन हकिङ

日本語: スティーヴン・ホーキング

norsk: Stephen Hawking

norsk nynorsk: Stephen Hawking

occitan: Stephen Hawking

ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଷ୍ଟିଫେନ ହକିଙ୍ଗ

oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Stephen Hawking

ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸਟੀਫਨ ਹਾਕਿੰਗ

پنجابی: سٹیفن ہاکنگ

پښتو: استیون هاوکینگ

Piemontèis: Stephen Hawking

polski: Stephen Hawking

português: Stephen Hawking

română: Stephen Hawking

русский: Хокинг, Стивен

саха тыла: Стивен Хокинг

संस्कृतम्: स्टीफन् हाकिङ्ग्

Scots: Stephen Hawking

shqip: Stephen Hawking

Simple English: Stephen Hawking

slovenčina: Stephen Hawking

slovenščina: Stephen Hawking

ślůnski: Stephen Hawking

کوردی: ستیڤن ھۆکینگ

српски / srpski: Стивен Хокинг

srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Stephen Hawking

suomi: Stephen Hawking

svenska: Stephen Hawking

Tagalog: Stephen Hawking

தமிழ்: ஸ்டீவன் ஹாக்கிங்

татарча/tatarça: Стивен Һокиң

తెలుగు: స్టీఫెన్ హాకింగ్

ไทย: สตีเฟน ฮอว์กิง

тоҷикӣ: Стивен Ҳокинг

Türkçe: Stephen Hawking

Thuɔŋjäŋ: Stephen Hawkiŋ

удмурт: Хокинг, Стивен

українська: Стівен Гокінг

اردو: اسٹیفن ہاکنگ

ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ستىفېن ۋىليام خاۋكىڭ

vepsän kel’: Hoking Stiven

Tiếng Việt: Stephen Hawking

文言: 霍金

Winaray: Stephen Hawking

吴语: 史蒂芬·霍金

ייִדיש: סטיווען האקינג

粵語: 霍金

Zazaki: Stephen Hawking

žemaitėška: Stephen Hawking

中文: 史蒂芬·霍金

Kabɩyɛ: Stephen Hawking