Sri Lanka

Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka

  • ශ්‍රී ලංකා ප්‍රජාතාන්ත්‍රික සමාජවාදී ජනරජය (Sinhalese)
  • Srī Lankā prajātāntrika samājavādī janarajaya
  • இலங்கை ஜனநாயக சோசலிச குடியரசு (Tamil)
  • Ilaṅkai jaṉanāyaka sōsalisa kuṭiyarasu
Anthem: "Sri Lanka Matha"
Mother Sri Lanka
Location of Sri Lanka
Location of Sri Lanka
CapitalSri Jayawardenepura Kotte
(Administrative)
Colombo (Commercial)
6°56′N 79°52′E / 6°56′N 79°52′E / 6.933; 79.867
Largest cityColombo
Official languagesSinhala
Tamil[1]
Recognised languagesEnglish
Ethnic groups
(2012[2])
74.9% Sinhalese
11.2% Sri Lankan Tamils
9.2% Sri Lankan Moors
4.2% Indian Tamils
0.5% Others (incl. Burghers, Malays, Veddas, Chinese, Africans)
Religion
70.2% Buddhism
12.6% Hinduism
9.7% Islam
7.4% Christianity
0.1% Other/None
Demonym(s)Sri Lankan
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential constitutional republic
• President
Maithripala Sirisena
Ranil Wickremesinghe
Karu Jayasuriya
Nalin Perera
LegislatureParliament
Independence 
• Dominion
4 February 1948
• Republic
22 May 1972
7 September 1978
Area
• Total
65,610 km2 (25,330 sq mi) (120th)
• Water (%)
4.4
Population
• 2018 estimate
21,670,000[3] (57th)
• 2012 census
20,277,597[4] (57th)
• Density
327/km2 (846.9/sq mi) (43rd)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$298.310 billion[5]
• Per capita
$13,847[6]
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$93.45 billion[7]
• Per capita
$4,310[8]
Gini (2016)39.8[9]
medium
HDI (2017)Increase 0.770[10]
high · 76th
CurrencySri Lankan rupee (LKR)
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (SLST)
Date format
  • dd-mm-yyyy
  • yyyy-mm-dd
Driving sideleft
Calling code+94
ISO 3166 codeLK
Internet TLD

Sri Lanka (UK: -/, US: ə/ (About this soundlisten);[11][12] Sinhalese: ශ්‍රී ලංකා Śrī Laṃkā; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea. The island is historically and culturally intertwined with the Indian subcontinent, but is geographically separated from the Indian subcontinent by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait. The legislative capital, Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte, is a suburb of the commercial capital and largest city, Colombo.

Sri Lanka's documented history spans 3,000 years, with evidence of pre-historic human settlements dating back to at least 125,000 years.[13] It has a rich cultural heritage and the first known Buddhist writings of Sri Lanka, the Pāli Canon, date back to the Fourth Buddhist council in 29 BC.[14][15] Its geographic location and deep harbours made it of great strategic importance from the time of the ancient Silk Road through to the modern Maritime Silk Road.[16][17][18]

Sri Lanka was known from the beginning of British colonial rule as Ceylon (n/, US also -/). A nationalist political movement arose in the country in the early 20th century to obtain political independence, which was granted in 1948; the country became a republic and adopted its current name in 1972. Sri Lanka's recent history has been marred by a 30-year civil war, which decisively ended when the Sri Lanka Armed Forces defeated the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) in 2009.[19]

The current constitution stipulates the political system as a republic and a unitary state governed by a semi-presidential system. It has had a long history of international engagement, as a founding member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), and a member of the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, the G77, and the Non-Aligned Movement. Along with the Maldives, Sri Lanka is one of only two South Asian countries rated "high" on the Human Development Index (HDI), with its HDI rating and per capita income the highest among South Asian nations.[10] The Sri Lankan constitution accords Buddhism the "foremost place", although it does not identify it as a state religion. Buddhism is given special privileges in the Sri Lankan constitution.[20]

The island is home to many cultures, languages and ethnicities. The majority of the population is from the Sinhalese ethnicity, while a large minority of Tamils have also played an influential role in the island's history. Moors, Burghers, Malays, Chinese, and the indigenous Vedda are also established groups on the island.[21]

Etymology

In antiquity, Sri Lanka was known to travellers by a variety of names. According to the Mahavamsa, the legendary Prince Vijaya named the land Tambapanni ("copper-red hands" or "copper-red earth"), because his followers' hands were reddened by the red soil of the area.[22][23] In Hindu mythology, such as the Ramayana, the island was referred to as Lankā ("Island"). The Tamil term Eelam (Tamil: ஈழம், translit. īḻam), was used to designate the whole island in Sangam literature.[24][25]

Ancient Greek geographers called it Taprobanā (Ancient Greek: Ταπροβανᾶ) or Taprobanē (Ταπροβανῆ)[26] from the word Tambapanni. The Persians and Arabs referred to it as Sarandīb (the origin of the word "serendipity") from Cerentivu[27] or Siṃhaladvīpaḥ.[28][29] Ceilão, the name given to Sri Lanka by the Portuguese Empire when it arrived in 1505,[30] was transliterated into English as Ceylon.[31] As a British crown colony, the island was known as Ceylon; it achieved independence as the Dominion of Ceylon in 1948.

The country is now known in Sinhalese as Śrī Laṃkā (Sinhalese: ශ්‍රී ලංකා) and in Tamil as Ilaṅkai (Tamil: இலங்கை, IPA: [iˈlaŋɡai]). In 1972, its formal name was changed to "Free, Sovereign and Independent Republic of Sri Lanka". Later in 1978 it was changed to the "Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka".[32] As the name Ceylon still appears in the names of a number of organisations, the Sri Lankan government announced in 2011 a plan to rename all those over which it has authority.[33]

Other Languages
Acèh: Srilanka
Afrikaans: Sri Lanka
Alemannisch: Sri Lanka
አማርኛ: ሽሪ ላንካ
Ænglisc: Tāprabane
العربية: سريلانكا
aragonés: Sri Lanka
arpetan: Sri Lanka
অসমীয়া: শ্ৰীলংকা
asturianu: Sri Lanka
Avañe'ẽ: Seilãu
azərbaycanca: Şri-Lanka
تۆرکجه: سری لانکا
Bân-lâm-gú: Sri Lanka
башҡортса: Шри-Ланка
беларуская: Шры-Ланка
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Шры-Ланка
भोजपुरी: श्री लंका
Bikol Central: Sri Lanka
български: Шри Ланка
Boarisch: Sri Lanka
bosanski: Šri Lanka
brezhoneg: Sri Lanka
буряад: Шри Ланка
català: Sri Lanka
Чӑвашла: Шри-Ланка
Cebuano: Sri Lanka
čeština: Srí Lanka
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Sri Lanka
chiShona: Sri Lanka
chiTumbuka: Sri Lanka
Cymraeg: Sri Lanca
dansk: Sri Lanka
davvisámegiella: Sri Lanka
Deutsch: Sri Lanka
ދިވެހިބަސް: އޮޅުދޫކަރަ
dolnoserbski: Sri Lanka
डोटेली: श्रीलंका
eesti: Sri Lanka
Ελληνικά: Σρι Λάνκα
español: Sri Lanka
Esperanto: Srilanko
estremeñu: Sri Lanka
euskara: Sri Lanka
Fiji Hindi: Sri Lanka
føroyskt: Sri Lanka
français: Sri Lanka
Frysk: Sry Lanka
Gaeilge: Srí Lanca
Gaelg: Sri Lanka
Gagauz: Şri Lanka
Gàidhlig: Sri Lanca
galego: Sri Lanka
Gĩkũyũ: Sri Lanka
ગુજરાતી: શ્રીલંકા
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐍃𐍂𐌹-𐌻𐌰𐌽𐌺𐌰
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: श्रीलंका
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Sri Lanka
한국어: 스리랑카
Hausa: Sri Lanka
Hawaiʻi: Sililanaka
հայերեն: Շրի Լանկա
हिन्दी: श्रीलंका
hornjoserbsce: Sri Lanka
hrvatski: Šri Lanka
Ilokano: Sri Lanka
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: শ্রীলঙ্কা
Bahasa Indonesia: Sri Lanka
interlingua: Sri Lanka
Interlingue: Sri Lanka
isiZulu: Sri Lanka
íslenska: Srí Lanka
italiano: Sri Lanka
עברית: סרי לנקה
Basa Jawa: Sri Lanka
Kabɩyɛ: Sriilanka
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಶ್ರೀಲಂಕಾ
Kapampangan: Sri Lanka
ქართული: შრი-ლანკა
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: सिरीलंका
kaszëbsczi: Sri Lanka
қазақша: Шри-Ланка
kernowek: Shri Lanka
Kinyarwanda: Siri Lanka
Kiswahili: Sri Lanka
Kongo: Sri Lanka
Kreyòl ayisyen: Srilanka
kurdî: Srî Lanka
Кыргызча: Шри-Ланка
Latina: Taprobane
latviešu: Šrilanka
Lëtzebuergesch: Sri Lanka
лезги: Шри-Ланка
lietuvių: Šri Lanka
Ligure: Sri Lanka
Limburgs: Sri Lanka
lingála: Sri Lanka
Lingua Franca Nova: Srilanca
Livvinkarjala: Sri Lanka
lumbaart: Sri Lanka
magyar: Srí Lanka
मैथिली: श्रीलंका
македонски: Шри Ланка
Malagasy: Sri Lanka
മലയാളം: ശ്രീലങ്ക
Malti: Sri Lanka
Māori: Hīraka
मराठी: श्रीलंका
მარგალური: შრი-ლანკა
مازِرونی: سری لانکا
Bahasa Melayu: Sri Lanka
Baso Minangkabau: Sarilangka
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Sri Lanka
монгол: Шри-Ланк
Nāhuatl: Sri Lanca
Dorerin Naoero: Sri Lanka
Nederlands: Sri Lanka
नेपाली: श्रीलङ्का
नेपाल भाषा: श्रीलङ्का
日本語: スリランカ
нохчийн: Шри-Ланка
Nordfriisk: Sri Lanka
Norfuk / Pitkern: Sri Lanka
norsk: Sri Lanka
norsk nynorsk: Sri Lanka
Novial: Sri Lanka
occitan: Sri Lanka
олык марий: Шри-Ланка
Oromoo: Sirilaankaa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Shri lanka
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸ੍ਰੀਲੰਕਾ
پنجابی: سری لنکا
Papiamentu: Sri Lanka
Patois: Sri Langka
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ស្រីលង្កា
Picard: Sri Lanka
Piemontèis: Sri Lanka
Tok Pisin: Sri Lanka
Plattdüütsch: Sri Lanka
polski: Sri Lanka
português: Sri Lanka
Qaraqalpaqsha: Shri Lanka
qırımtatarca: Şri Lanka
română: Sri Lanka
Runa Simi: Sri Lanka
русиньскый: Срі Ланка
русский: Шри-Ланка
саха тыла: Сри Ланка
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱥᱨᱤᱞᱚᱝᱠᱟ
Gagana Samoa: Sri Lanka
संस्कृतम्: श्रीलङ्का
Scots: Sri Lanka
Sesotho sa Leboa: Sri Lanka
shqip: Sri Lanka
sicilianu: Sri Lanka
Simple English: Sri Lanka
سنڌي: سري لنڪا
SiSwati: Siri Lanka
slovenčina: Srí Lanka
slovenščina: Šrilanka
ślůnski: Sri Lanka
Soomaaliga: Siri Lanka
کوردی: سریلانکا
српски / srpski: Шри Ланка
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Šri Lanka
Basa Sunda: Sri Langka
suomi: Sri Lanka
svenska: Sri Lanka
Tagalog: Sri Lanka
தமிழ்: இலங்கை
татарча/tatarça: Шри-Ланка
తెలుగు: శ్రీలంక
tetun: Srilanka
тоҷикӣ: Шри-Ланка
Türkçe: Sri Lanka
Türkmençe: Şri-Lanka
удмурт: Шри-Ланка
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Sri Lanka
українська: Шрі-Ланка
اردو: سری لنکا
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: سرىلانكا
Vahcuengh: Sri Lanka
vèneto: Sri Lanka
vepsän kel’: Šrilank
Tiếng Việt: Sri Lanka
Volapük: Sri-Lankän
Võro: Sri Lanka
文言: 斯里蘭卡
West-Vlams: Sri Lanka
Winaray: Sri Lanka
吴语: 斯里兰卡
ייִדיש: סרי לאנקא
Yorùbá: Sri Lanka
粵語: 斯里蘭卡
Zazaki: Sri Lanka
Zeêuws: Sri Lanka
žemaitėška: Šri Lanka
中文: 斯里蘭卡