Sprint (running)

Usain Bolt, world record holder in 100 m and 200 m sprints
A sprinter strides forwards from the starting blocks. The blocks helped her to isometrically preload her muscles when she adopted the 'set' position; this allowed her to drive forwards more powerfully and start faster.

Sprinting is running over a short distance in a limited period of time. It is used in many sports that incorporate running, typically as a way of quickly reaching a target or goal, or avoiding or catching an opponent. Human physiology dictates that a runner's near-top speed cannot be maintained for more than 30–35 seconds due to the depletion of phosphocreatine stores in muscles, and perhaps secondarily to excessive metabolic acidosis as a result of anaerobic glycolysis.[1]

In athletics and track and field, sprints (or dashes) are races over short distances. They are among the oldest running competitions, being recorded at the Ancient Olympic Games. Three sprints are currently held at the modern Summer Olympics and outdoor World Championships: the 100 metres, 200 metres, and 400 metres.

At the professional level, sprinters begin the race by assuming a crouching position in the starting blocks before driving forward and gradually moving into an upright position as the race progresses and momentum is gained. The set position differs depending on the start. The use of starting blocks allows the sprinter to perform an enhanced isometric preload; this generates muscular pre-tension which is channelled into the subsequent forward drive, making it more powerful. Body alignment is of key importance in producing the optimal amount of force. Ideally the athlete should begin in a 4-point stance and drive forwards, pushing off using both legs for maximum force production.[2] Athletes remain in the same lane on the running track throughout all sprinting events,[1] with the sole exception of the 400 m indoors. Races up to 100 m are largely focused upon acceleration to an athlete's maximum speed.[2] All sprints beyond this distance increasingly incorporate an element of endurance.[3]

History

The stadion of ancient Nemea, Greece.

The first 13 editions of the Ancient Olympic Games featured only one event—the stadion race, which was a sprinting race from one end of the stadium to the other.[4] The Diaulos (Δίαυλος, "double pipe") was a double-stadion race, c. 400 metres (1,300 feet), introduced in the 14th Olympiad of the ancient Olympic Games (724 BC).

The modern sprinting events have their roots in races of imperial measurements which were later altered to metric: the 100 m evolved from the 100-yard dash,[5] the 200 m distance came from the furlong (or ​18 mile),[6] and the 400 m was the successor to the 440-yard dash or quarter-mile race.[1]

Other Languages
العربية: عدو سريع
български: Спринт
čeština: Sprint
Deutsch: Sprint
فارسی: دو سرعت
Bahasa Indonesia: Lari cepat
ქართული: სპრინტი
lietuvių: Sprintas
مصرى: جرى سريع
Bahasa Melayu: Lari pecut
Nederlands: Sprint (atletiek)
日本語: 短距離走
norsk: Sprintløp
polski: Sprint
português: Sprint (atletismo)
संस्कृतम्: लघुधावनम्
Simple English: Sprint
slovenčina: Šprint
slovenščina: Šprint
српски / srpski: Спринт (атлетика)
suomi: Pikajuoksu
Tiếng Việt: Chạy nước rút
粵語: 短跑
中文: 短跑