Spanish language

  • spanish
    castilian
    español
    castellano
    pronunciation[espaˈɲol], [kasteˈʎano]
    regionspain, hispanic america, equatorial guinea (see below)
    ethnicityhispanics
    • spaniards
    • hispanic americans
    • equatoguineans
    • sephardim
    • sahrawis
    native speakers
    483 million native speakers (2019)[1]
    75 million l2 speakers and speakers with limited capacity + 22 million students[1]
    language family
    indo-european
    • italic
      • romance
        • western romance
          • ibero-romance
            • west-iberian
              • (in one taxonomy: castilian languages[2])
                • spanish
    early forms
    old latin
    • classical latin
      • vulgar latin
        • old spanish
    writing system
    latin (spanish alphabet)
    spanish braille
    signed forms
    signed spanish (mexico, spain and presumably elsewhere)
    official status
    official language in




    regulated byassociation of spanish language academies
    (real academia española and 22 other national spanish language academies)
    language codes
    es
    spa
    iso 639-3spa
    stan1288[3]
    linguasphere51-aaa-b
    idioma español en el mundo.png
    territories where spanish is spoken
    this article contains ipa phonetic symbols. without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of unicode characters. for an introductory guide on ipa symbols, see help:ipa.

    spanish (ʃ/ (about this soundlisten); about this soundespañol ), or castilian[4] (n/ (about this soundlisten), about this soundcastellano ), is a romance language that originated in the iberian peninsula and today has over 483 million native speakers, mainly in spain and the americas. it is a global language, the world's second-most spoken native language, after mandarin chinese,[5][6] and the world's fourth-most spoken language, after english, mandarin chinese and hindi.

    spanish is a part of the ibero-romance group of languages, which evolved from several dialects of vulgar latin in iberia after the collapse of the western roman empire in the 5th century. the oldest latin texts with traces of spanish come from mid-northern iberia in the 9th century,[7] and the first systematic written use of the language happened in toledo, a prominent city of the kingdom of castile, in the 13th century. beginning in 1492, the spanish language was taken to the viceroyalties of the spanish empire, most notably to the americas, as well as territories in africa, oceania and the philippines.[8]

    a 1949 study by italian-american linguist mario pei, analyzing the degree of difference from a language's parent (latin, in the case of romance languages) by comparing phonology, inflection, syntax, vocabulary, and intonation, indicated the following percentages (the higher the percentage, the greater the distance from latin): in the case of spanish, it is one of the closest romance languages to latin (20% distance), only behind sardinian (8% distance) and italian (12% distance).[9] around 75% of modern spanish vocabulary is derived from latin, including latin borrowings from ancient greek.[10][11] spanish vocabulary has been in contact with arabic from an early date, having developed during the al-andalus era in the iberian peninsula and around 8% of its vocabulary has an arabic lexical root.[12][13][14][15][12] it has also been influenced by basque, iberian, celtiberian, visigothic, and by neighboring ibero-romance languages.[16][12] additionally, it has absorbed vocabulary from other languages, particularly other romance languages—french, italian, andalusi romance, portuguese, galician, catalan, occitan, and sardinian—as well as from quechua, nahuatl, and other indigenous languages of the americas.[17]

    spanish is one of the six official languages of the united nations. it is also used as an official language by the european union, the organization of american states, the union of south american nations, the community of latin american and caribbean states, the african union and many other international organizations.[18]

    despite its large number of speakers, the spanish language does not feature prominently in scientific writing, though it is better represented in the humanities.[19] 75% of scientific production in spanish is divided into three thematic areas: social sciences, medical sciences and arts/humanities. spanish is the third most used language on the internet after english and chinese.[20]

  • estimated number of speakers
  • names of the language and etymology
  • history
  • grammar
  • phonology
  • geographical distribution
  • spanish speakers by country
  • dialectal variation
  • relation to other languages
  • writing system
  • organizations
  • see also
  • references
  • further reading
  • external links

Spanish
Castilian
español
castellano
Pronunciation[espaˈɲol], [kasteˈʎano]
RegionSpain, Hispanic America, Equatorial Guinea (see below)
EthnicityHispanics
Native speakers
483 million native speakers (2019)[1]
75 million L2 speakers and speakers with limited capacity + 22 million students[1]
Early forms
Latin (Spanish alphabet)
Spanish Braille
Signed Spanish (Mexico, Spain and presumably elsewhere)
Official status
Official language in




Regulated byAssociation of Spanish Language Academies
(Real Academia Española and 22 other national Spanish language academies)
Language codes
es
spa
ISO 639-3spa
stan1288[3]
Linguasphere51-AAA-b
Idioma español en el mundo.PNG
Territories where Spanish is spoken
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Spanish (ʃ/ (About this soundlisten); About this soundespañol ), or Castilian[4] (n/ (About this soundlisten), About this soundcastellano ), is a Romance language that originated in the Iberian Peninsula and today has over 483 million native speakers, mainly in Spain and the Americas. It is a global language, the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese,[5][6] and the world's fourth-most spoken language, after English, Mandarin Chinese and Hindi.

Spanish is a part of the Ibero-Romance group of languages, which evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin in Iberia after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century. The oldest Latin texts with traces of Spanish come from mid-northern Iberia in the 9th century,[7] and the first systematic written use of the language happened in Toledo, a prominent city of the Kingdom of Castile, in the 13th century. Beginning in 1492, the Spanish language was taken to the viceroyalties of the Spanish Empire, most notably to the Americas, as well as territories in Africa, Oceania and the Philippines.[8]

A 1949 study by Italian-American linguist Mario Pei, analyzing the degree of difference from a language's parent (Latin, in the case of Romance languages) by comparing phonology, inflection, syntax, vocabulary, and intonation, indicated the following percentages (the higher the percentage, the greater the distance from Latin): In the case of Spanish, it is one of the closest Romance languages to Latin (20% distance), only behind Sardinian (8% distance) and Italian (12% distance).[9] Around 75% of modern Spanish vocabulary is derived from Latin, including Latin borrowings from Ancient Greek.[10][11] Spanish vocabulary has been in contact with Arabic from an early date, having developed during the Al-Andalus era in the Iberian Peninsula and around 8% of its vocabulary has an Arabic lexical root.[12][13][14][15][12] It has also been influenced by Basque, Iberian, Celtiberian, Visigothic, and by neighboring Ibero-Romance languages.[16][12] Additionally, it has absorbed vocabulary from other languages, particularly other Romance languages—French, Italian, Andalusi Romance, Portuguese, Galician, Catalan, Occitan, and Sardinian—as well as from Quechua, Nahuatl, and other indigenous languages of the Americas.[17]

Spanish is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. It is also used as an official language by the European Union, the Organization of American States, the Union of South American Nations, the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, the African Union and many other international organizations.[18]

Despite its large number of speakers, the Spanish language does not feature prominently in scientific writing, though it is better represented in the humanities.[19] 75% of scientific production in Spanish is divided into three thematic areas: social sciences, medical sciences and arts/humanities. Spanish is the third most used language on the internet after English and Chinese.[20]

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: Эспаныбзэ
адыгабзэ: Испаныбзэ
Afrikaans: Spaans
Akan: Spanish
Alemannisch: Spanische Sprache
አማርኛ: እስፓንኛ
armãneashti: Limba ispańolâ
arpetan: Castilyan
Avañe'ẽ: Karaiñe'ẽ
Aymar aru: Kastilla aru
azərbaycanca: İspan dili
bamanankan: Espankan
Bân-lâm-gú: Se-pan-gâ-gí
башҡортса: Испан теле
беларуская: Іспанская мова
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Гішпанская мова
भोजपुरी: स्पेनिश भाषा
Bikol Central: Tataramon na Espanyol
български: Испански език
བོད་ཡིག: སེ་པན་སྐད།
bosanski: Španski jezik
brezhoneg: Spagnoleg
català: Castellà
Чӑвашла: Испан чĕлхи
Cebuano: Kinatsila
čeština: Španělština
Chamoru: Españót
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Lengua Español
Chi-Chewa: Chispanezi
chiShona: ChiSpanish
Cymraeg: Sbaeneg
davvisámegiella: Spánskkagiella
Deitsch: Schpaanisch
ދިވެހިބަސް: އިސްޕެނިޝް
Diné bizaad: Naakaii bizaad
dolnoserbski: Špańšćina
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Spagnôl
español: Idioma español
Esperanto: Hispana lingvo
estremeñu: Luenga castellana
euskara: Gaztelania
eʋegbe: Spangbe
Fiji Hindi: Spanish bhasa
føroyskt: Spanskt mál
français: Espagnol
Frysk: Spaansk
Gaeilge: An Spáinnis
Gaelg: Spaainish
Gagauz: İspan dili
Gàidhlig: Spàinntis
ГӀалгӀай: ХIиспаной мотт
贛語: 西班牙語
ગુજરાતી: સ્પેનિશ ભાષા
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Sî-pân-ngà-ngî
한국어: 스페인어
հայերեն: Իսպաներեն
hornjoserbsce: Španišćina
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: স্প্যানিশ ঠার
Bahasa Indonesia: Bahasa Spanyol
interlingua: Lingua espaniol
Interlingue: Hispan
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᓯᐸᐃᓂᑎᑐᑦ
isiXhosa: IsiSpain
isiZulu: IsiSpeyini
íslenska: Spænska
italiano: Lingua spagnola
עברית: ספרדית
kalaallisut: Spanskisut
Kapampangan: Espanyol (amanu)
къарачай-малкъар: Испан тил
ქართული: ესპანური ენა
kaszëbsczi: Szpańsczi jãzëk
қазақша: Испан тілі
kernowek: Spaynek
Kinyarwanda: Icyesipanyole
Kiswahili: Kihispania
Kongo: Kispanya
Kreyòl ayisyen: Lang panyòl
kriyòl gwiyannen: Èspangnòl
Кыргызча: Испан тили
кырык мары: Испани йӹлмӹ
лакку: Спанс маз
لۊری شومالی: زڤون اْسپانیایی
latviešu: Spāņu valoda
Lëtzebuergesch: Spuenesch
лезги: Испан чIал
lietuvių: Ispanų kalba
Limburgs: Castiliaans
lingála: Lispanyoli
Lingua Franca Nova: Espaniol (lingua)
Livvinkarjala: Ispanien kieli
la .lojban.: sanbau
македонски: Шпански јазик
Māori: Reo Pāniora
მარგალური: ესპანური ნინა
مازِرونی: ایسپانیولی
Bahasa Melayu: Bahasa Sepanyol
Minangkabau: Bahaso Spanyol
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Să̤-băng-ngà-ngṳ̄
монгол: Испани хэл
မြန်မာဘာသာ: စပိန်ဘာသာစကား
Nāhuatl: Caxtillahtolli
Dorerin Naoero: Dorerin Pain
Nederlands: Spaans
Nedersaksies: Spaans
नेपाल भाषा: स्पेनी भाषा
日本語: スペイン語
Napulitano: Lengua spagnuola
Nordfriisk: Spoonsk spriak
Norfuk / Pitkern: Spanish
norsk: Spansk
norsk nynorsk: Spansk
Nouormand: Espangnô
Novial: Spanum
occitan: Espanhòu
олык марий: Испан йылме
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Ispan tili
Pangasinan: Salitan Espanyol
پنجابی: ہسپانوی
Papiamentu: Spaño
Patois: Panish
Перем Коми: Эспаннёл кыв
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ភាសាអេស្ប៉ាញ
Picard: Éspaingnol
Piemontèis: Lenga spagneula
Tok Pisin: Tok Spen
Plattdüütsch: Spaansche Spraak
português: Língua castelhana
Qaraqalpaqsha: İspan tili
qırımtatarca: İspan tili
reo tahiti: Reo Paniora
Ripoarisch: Schpanische Sproch
română: Limba spaniolă
rumantsch: Lingua spagnola
Runa Simi: Kastilla simi
русиньскый: Шпанєльскый язык
саха тыла: Испаан тыла
Gagana Samoa: Fa'asipaniolo
संस्कृतम्: स्पैनिश भाषा
Sängö: Espanyöl
Seeltersk: Spoanske Sproake
Sesotho: Sespain
Sesotho sa Leboa: Sespan
Setswana: Sespan
sicilianu: Lingua spagnola
Simple English: Spanish language
SiSwati: Sipanishi
slovenčina: Španielčina
slovenščina: Španščina
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Їспанїискъ ѩꙁꙑкъ
Soomaaliga: Af-Isbaanish
Sranantongo: Spanyorotongo
српски / srpski: Шпански језик
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Španski jezik
svenska: Spanska
tarandíne: Lènga spagnole
татарча/tatarça: Испан теле
ትግርኛ: ስፓኒሽ
Tshivenda: Spanish
Türkçe: İspanyolca
Türkmençe: Ispan dili
Twi: Spanish
тыва дыл: Испан дыл
удмурт: Испан кыл
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: ᨅᨔ ᨔᨄᨎᨚᨒ
українська: Іспанська мова
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ئىسپان تىلى
Vahcuengh: Vah Sihbanhyaz
vepsän kel’: Ispanijan kel'
Tiếng Việt: Tiếng Tây Ban Nha
Volapük: Spanyänapük
文言: 西班牙語
West-Vlams: Spoans
Winaray: Kinatsila
Wolof: Wu-ispaañ
吴语: 西班牙语
Xitsonga: Xipaniya
ייִדיש: שפאניש
Yorùbá: Èdè Spéìn
粵語: 西班牙文
Zazaki: İspanyolki
Zeêuws: Spaons
žemaitėška: Ispanu kalba
中文: 西班牙语