Spain

Kingdom of Spain
Reino de España  (Spanish)
Motto: "Plus Ultra" (Latin)
"Further Beyond"
Anthem: "Marcha Real" (Spanish)[2]
"Royal March"
EU-Spain (orthographic projection).svg
EU-Spain.svg
Location of  Spain  (dark green)

– in Europe  (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (green)

Location of Spain
Capital
and largest city
Madrid
40°26′N 3°42′W / 40°26′N 3°42′W / 40.433; -3.700
Official language
and national language
Spanish[c]
Co-official languages
in certain autonomous
communities
Catalan
Galician
Basque
Occitan
Ethnic groups (2017)
Religion (2017)[4]
Demonym
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Felipe VI
Pedro Sánchez
Pío García-Escudero
Ana Pastor Julián
Carlos Lesmes Serrano
LegislatureCortes Generales
Senate
Congress of Deputies
Formation
20 January 1479
• De facto
23 January 1516
• De jure
9 June 1715
19 March 1812
29 December 1978
1 January 1986
Area
• Total
505,990[5] km2 (195,360 sq mi) (51st)
• Water (%)
1.04
Population
• 2018 estimate
46,700,000 Increase[e] (30th)
• Density
92/km2 (238.3/sq mi) (112th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$1.864 trillion[7] (16th)
• Per capita
$40,290[7] (31st)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$1.506 trillion[7] (12th)
• Per capita
$32,559[7] (30th)
Gini (2016)34.5[8]
medium
HDI (2018)Increase 0.891[9]
very high · 26th
CurrencyEuro[f] () (EUR)
Time zoneUTC (CET (UTC 0 to +1)
WET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+1 (CEST (UTC+1 to +2)
WEST)
Note: most of Spain is CET/CEST, except the Canary Islands and Plazas de soberanía which observe WET/WEST
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy (CE)
Driving sideright
Calling code+34
ISO 3166 codeES
Internet TLD.es[g]

Spain (Spanish: España [esˈpaɲa] (About this sound listen)), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Spanish: Reino de España),[a][b] is a country mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe. The country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean. Spanish territory includes two large archipelagoes, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea and the Canary Islands off the African Atlantic coast, two cities, Ceuta and Melilla, on the African mainland and several small islands in the Alboran Sea near the African coast. Spain is the only European country to have a border with an African country (Morocco).[h]

With an area of 505,990 km2 (195,360 sq mi), Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, and the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid; other major urban areas include Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Málaga and Bilbao.

Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek, Celtic and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Sp(a)n or Spania.[10] At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established relatively independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi, Alans and Vandals. Eventually, the Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically, ecclesiastically and legally all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was then documented as Hispania.

In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north, lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada. This led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castille, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion. Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista,[11] which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs.

In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a vast cultural and linguistic legacy that includes over 500 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were also many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez.The most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was also published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

The sovereign state of Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy,[12] with King Felipe VI as head of state. It is a major developed country[13] and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations (UN), the European Union (EU), the Eurozone, the Council of Europe (CoE), the Organization of Ibero-American States (OEI), the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), OSCE, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization (WTO) and many other international organisations. Spain has a "permanent invitation" to the G20 summits that occur generally once a year.

Etymology

The origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most widely accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.[10][14] Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses:

The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world".

Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged".[15] It may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean; Roman coins struck in the region from the reign of Hadrian show a female figure with a rabbit at her feet,[16] and Strabo called it the "land of the rabbits".[17]

Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia, Ἑσπερία in Greek) and Spain, being still further west, as Hesperia ultima.[18]

There is the claim that "Hispania" derives from the Basque word Ezpanna meaning "edge" or "border", another reference to the fact that the Iberian Peninsula constitutes the southwest corner of the European continent.[18]

Two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem. Phiros was a Grecian by birth, but who had been given a kingdom in Spain. Phiros became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, who also ruled over a kingdom in Spain. Heracles later renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, Espan, from whom the country of España (Spain) took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c. 350 BCE.[19]

Other Languages
Acèh: Seupanyo
Адыгэбзэ: Эспаниэ
адыгабзэ: Испание
Afrikaans: Spanje
Akan: Spain
Alemannisch: Spanien
አማርኛ: እስፓንያ
Ænglisc: Spēonland
Аҧсшәа: Еспаниа
العربية: إسبانيا
aragonés: Espanya
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܐܣܦܢܝܐ
armãneashti: Ispania
arpetan: Èspagne
asturianu: España
Avañe'ẽ: Epáña
авар: Испан
Aymar aru: Ispaña
azərbaycanca: İspaniya
تۆرکجه: ایسپانیا
বাংলা: স্পেন
Bân-lâm-gú: Se-pan-gâ
башҡортса: Испания
беларуская: Іспанія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Гішпанія
भोजपुरी: स्पेन
Bikol Central: Espanya
Bislama: Spain
български: Испания
Boarisch: Spanien
བོད་ཡིག: ཞི་པན་ཡ།
bosanski: Španija
brezhoneg: Spagn
буряад: Испани
català: Espanya
Чӑвашла: Испани
Cebuano: Espanya
čeština: Španělsko
Chamoru: España
Chavacano de Zamboanga: España
chiShona: Spain
chiTumbuka: Spain
corsu: Spagna
Cymraeg: Sbaen
dansk: Spanien
davvisámegiella: Spánia
Deitsch: Schpaani
Deutsch: Spanien
ދިވެހިބަސް: އިސްޕެއިން
dolnoserbski: Špańska
ཇོང་ཁ: སིཔཱེན་
eesti: Hispaania
Ελληνικά: Ισπανία
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Spaggna
español: España
Esperanto: Hispanio
estremeñu: España
euskara: Espainia
eʋegbe: Spain
فارسی: اسپانیا
Fiji Hindi: Spain
føroyskt: Spania
français: Espagne
Frysk: Spanje
Fulfulde: Hispaanya
furlan: Spagne
Gaeilge: An Spáinn
Gagauz: İspaniya
Gàidhlig: An Spàinn
galego: España
贛語: 西班牙
گیلکی: ائسپانيا
ગુજરાતી: સ્પેન
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐌷𐌴𐌹𐍃𐍀𐌰𐌽𐌾𐌰
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: स्पेन
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Sî-pân-ngà
한국어: 스페인
Hausa: Hispania
Hawaiʻi: Sepania
հայերեն: Իսպանիա
हिन्दी: स्पेन
hornjoserbsce: Španiska
hrvatski: Španjolska
Igbo: Spain
Ilokano: Espania
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: স্পেন
Bahasa Indonesia: Spanyol
interlingua: Espania
Interlingue: Hispania
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᓯᐸᐃᓐ
Iñupiak: Spaña
Ирон: Испани
isiXhosa: ISpain
isiZulu: ISpeyini
íslenska: Spánn
italiano: Spagna
עברית: ספרד
Basa Jawa: Sepanyol
kalaallisut: Spania
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಸ್ಪೇನ್
Kapampangan: Espanya
къарачай-малкъар: Испания
ქართული: ესპანეთი
kaszëbsczi: Szpańskô
қазақша: Испания
kernowek: Spayn
Kinyarwanda: Esipanye
Kirundi: Esipanye
Kiswahili: Hispania
коми: Испания
Kongo: Espania
Kreyòl ayisyen: Espay
kurdî: Spanya
Кыргызча: Испания
Ladino: Espanya
лезги: Испания
لۊری شومالی: إسپانيا
latgaļu: Spaneja
Latina: Hispania
latviešu: Spānija
Lëtzebuergesch: Spuenien
lietuvių: Ispanija
Ligure: Spagna
Limburgs: Spanje
lingála: Espania
Livvinkarjala: Ispuanii
la .lojban.: sangu'e
lumbaart: Spagna
मैथिली: स्पेन
македонски: Шпанија
Malagasy: Espaina
മലയാളം: സ്പെയിൻ
Malti: Spanja
Māori: Pāniora
मराठी: स्पेन
მარგალური: ესპანეთი
مصرى: اسبانيا
مازِرونی: ایسپانیا
Bahasa Melayu: Sepanyol
Baso Minangkabau: Spanyol
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Să̤-băng-ngà
Mirandés: Spanha
мокшень: Испания
монгол: Испани
မြန်မာဘာသာ: စပိန်နိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Caxtillan
Dorerin Naoero: Pain
Nederlands: Spanje
Nedersaksies: Spanje
नेपाली: स्पेन
नेपाल भाषा: स्पेन
日本語: スペイン
Napulitano: Spagna
нохчийн: Испани
Nordfriisk: Spaanien
Norfuk / Pitkern: Spain
norsk: Spania
norsk nynorsk: Spania
Nouormand: Espangne
Novial: Spania
occitan: Espanha
олык марий: Испаний
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ସ୍ପେନ
Oromoo: Ispeen
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Ispaniya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸਪੇਨ
पालि: स्पेन
Pangasinan: Espanya
پنجابی: سپین
Papiamentu: Spaña
پښتو: اسپانیا
Patois: Spien
Перем Коми: Эспання
ភាសាខ្មែរ: អេស្ប៉ាញ
Picard: Espanne
Piemontèis: Spagna
Tok Pisin: Spen
Plattdüütsch: Spanien
polski: Hiszpania
Ποντιακά: Ισπανία
português: Espanha
Qaraqalpaqsha: İspaniya
qırımtatarca: İspaniya
reo tahiti: Paniora
română: Spania
Romani: Spaniya
rumantsch: Spagna
Runa Simi: Ispaña
русиньскый: Іспанія
русский: Испания
саха тыла: Испания
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱮᱥᱯᱮᱱ
Gagana Samoa: Sepa­nia
संस्कृतम्: स्पेन्
Sängö: Espânye
sardu: Ispagna
Scots: Spain
Seeltersk: Spanien
Sesotho: Spain
Sesotho sa Leboa: Spain
shqip: Spanja
sicilianu: Spagna
සිංහල: ස්පාඤ්ඤය
Simple English: Spain
سنڌي: اسپين
SiSwati: Sipeyini
slovenčina: Španielsko
slovenščina: Španija
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Їспанїꙗ
ślůnski: Szpańijo
Soomaaliga: Isbania
کوردی: ئیسپانیا
Sranantongo: Spanyorokondre
српски / srpski: Шпанија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Španija
Basa Sunda: Spanyol
suomi: Espanja
svenska: Spanien
Tagalog: Espanya
Taqbaylit: Spenyul
tarandíne: Spagne
татарча/tatarça: Испания
తెలుగు: స్పెయిన్
tetun: España
тоҷикӣ: Испания
lea faka-Tonga: Sepeni
Tsetsêhestâhese: Spain
Tshivenda: Spain
Türkçe: İspanya
Türkmençe: Ispaniýa
Twi: Spain
удмурт: Испания
українська: Іспанія
اردو: ہسپانیہ
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ئىسپانىيە
Vahcuengh: Sihbanhyaz
vèneto: Spagna
vepsän kel’: Ispanii
Tiếng Việt: Tây Ban Nha
Volapük: Spanyän
Võro: Hispaania
walon: Espagne
文言: 西班牙
West-Vlams: Spanje
Winaray: Espanya
Wolof: Ispaañ
吴语: 西班牙
Xitsonga: Spaniya
ייִדיש: שפאניע
Yorùbá: Spéìn
粵語: 西班牙
Zazaki: İspanya
Zeêuws: Spanje
žemaitėška: Ispanėjė
中文: 西班牙
डोटेली: स्पेन
ГӀалгӀай: ХIиспани
Kabɩyɛ: Ɛsɩpaañɩ
Lingua Franca Nova: Espania