South Korea

Republic of Korea
대한민국/大韓民國
Daehan Minguk
Motto: "홍익인간 (弘益人間)" (Korean) (de facto)
"Benefit broadly in the human world /
Devotion to the Welfare of Humanity"
[1]
Anthem: Aegukga "애국가 (愛國歌)" (Korean) (de facto)
"Patriotic Song"
Government Emblem
Emblem of the Government of the Republic of Korea.svg
대한민국정부 상징문양 (Korean)
Government Emblem of the Republic of Korea
KOR orthographic.svg
Capital
and largest city
Seoul
37°33′N 126°58′E / 37°33′N 126°58′E / 37.550; 126.967
Official languagesKorean
Korean Sign Language[2]
Official scriptHangul
Ethnic groups Predominantly Korean. No official statistics[3][4]
Religion
Demonym
GovernmentUnitary presidential
constitutional republic
• President
Moon Jae-in
Lee Nak-yeon
Moon Hee-sang
Kim Myeong-soo
Yoo Nam-Seok
LegislatureNational Assembly
Establishment history
Traditionally October 3, 2333 BC
Record from 7th century BC
18 BC
698
936
17 July, 1392
12 October, 1897
August 29, 1910
March 1, 1919
September 11, 1919
• Liberation from Japan
August 15, 1945
August 15, 1948
February 25, 1988
• Admitted to the United Nations
September 17, 1991
Area
• Total
100,363 km2 (38,750 sq mi) (107th)
• Water (%)
0.3 (301 km2 / 116 mi2)
Population
• 2017 estimate
51,446,201[7][8] (27th)
• Density
507/km2 (1,313.1/sq mi) (23rd)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$2.138 trillion[9] (14th)
• Per capita
$41,388[9] (32nd)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$1.693 trillion[9] (12th)
• Per capita
$32,775[9] (29th)
Gini (2015)29.5[10]
low
HDI (2017)Increase 0.903[11]
very high · 22nd
CurrencySouth Korean won (₩)
(KRW)
Time zoneUTC+9 (Korea Standard Time)
Date format
  • yyyy년 m월 d일
  • yyyy. m. d. (CE)
Drives on theright
Calling code+82
ISO 3166 codeKR
Internet TLD
South Korea
South Korea (Hangul and Hanja).svg
"South Korea" in Hangul (top) and Hanja (bottom) scripts.
Hangul한국
Hanja韓國
Revised RomanizationHan(-)guk
McCune–ReischauerHan’guk
Republic of Korea
Hangul대한민국
Hanja大韓民國
Revised RomanizationDaehan Min(-)guk
McCune–ReischauerTaehan Min’guk

South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.[12] The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo which was one of the great powers in East Asia during its time,[13][14][15][16] ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, Manchuria, parts of the Russian Far East[17] and Inner Mongolia,[18] under Gwanggaeto the Great.[19] South Korea lies in the north temperate zone and has a predominantly mountainous terrain. It comprises an estimated 51.4 million residents distributed over 100,363 km2 (38,750 sq mi).[20] [21] The capital and largest city is Seoul, with a population of 10 million.

Archaeology indicates that the Korean Peninsula was inhabited by early humans starting from the Lower Paleolithic period (2.6 Ma–300 Ka).[22][23] The history of Korea begins with the foundation of Gojoseon in 2333 BC by the legendary king Dangun[citation needed]. Following the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea under Unified Silla in AD 668, Korea was subsequently ruled by the Goryeo dynasty (918–1392) and the Joseon dynasty (1392–1910). It was annexed by the Empire of Japan in 1910. At the end of World War II, Korea was divided into Soviet and U.S. zones of occupations. A separate election was held in the U.S. zone in 1948 which led to the creation of the Republic of Korea (ROK), while the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) was established in the Soviet zone. The United Nations at the time passed a resolution declaring the ROK to be the only lawful government in Korea.[24]

The Korean War began in 1950 when forces from the North invaded the South. The war lasted three years and involved the U.S., China, the Soviet Union and several other nations. The border between the two nations remains the most heavily fortified in the world.[25] Under long-time military leader Park Chung-hee, the South Korean economy grew significantly and the country was transformed into a G-20 major economy.[26] Military rule ended in 1987, and the country is now a presidential republic consisting of 17 administrative divisions.

South Korea is a developed country and a high-income economy, with a "very high" Human Development Index, ranking 22nd in the world. The country is considered a regional power and is the world's 11th largest economy by nominal GDP and the 12th largest by PPP as of 2010.[27] South Korea is a global leader in the industrial and technological sectors, being the world's 5th largest exporter and 8th largest importer. Its export-driven economy primarily focuses production on electronics, automobiles, ships, machinery, petrochemicals and robotics. South Korea is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, the United Nations, Uniting for Consensus, G20, the WTO and OECD and is a founding member of APEC and the East Asia Summit.

Etymology

The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo, also known as Koryŏ, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea

The name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name. The 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo,[28][29][30][31] and thus inherited its name, which was pronounced by visiting Persian merchants as "Korea".[32] The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel.[33] Despite the coexistence of the spellings Corea and Korea in 19th century publications, some Koreans believe that Imperial Japan, around the time of the Japanese occupation, intentionally standardised the spelling on Korea, making Japan appear first alphabetically.[33][34][35]

After Goryeo was replaced by Joseon in 1392, Joseon became the official name for the entire territory, though it was not universally accepted. The new official name has its origin in the ancient country of Gojoseon (Old Joseon). In 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the official name of the country from Joseon to Daehan Jeguk (Korean Empire). The name Daehan, which means "Great Han" literally, derives from Samhan (Three Hans), referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula.[36][37] However, the name Joseon was still widely used by Koreans to refer to their country, though it was no longer the official name. Under Japanese rule, the two names Han and Joseon coexisted. There were several groups who fought for independence, the most notable being the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea (대한민국 임시정부/大韓民國臨時政府).

Following the surrender of Japan, in 1945, the Republic of Korea (대한민국/大韓民國, IPA: ˈtɛ̝ːɦa̠nminɡuk̚, literally "Great Korean people's country"; About this sound listen) was adopted as the legal English name for the new country. Since the government only controlled the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, the informal term South Korea was coined, becoming increasingly common in the Western world. While South Koreans use Han (or Hanguk) to refer to the entire country, North Koreans and ethnic Koreans living in China and Japan use the term Joseon as the name of the country. The Korean name "Daehan Minguk" is sometimes used by South Koreans as a metonym to refer to the Korean ethnicity (or "race") as a whole, rather than just the South Korean state.[38]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Suid-Korea
Alemannisch: Südkorea
አማርኛ: ደቡብ ኮርያ
Ænglisc: Sūþcorēa
aragonés: Coreya d'o Sud
arpetan: Corê du Sud
asturianu: Corea del Sur
Avañe'ẽ: Ñemby Koréa
azərbaycanca: Cənubi Koreya
تۆرکجه: جنوبی کوره
Bân-lâm-gú: Tāi-hân Bîn-kok
башҡортса: Көньяҡ Корея
беларуская: Паўднёвая Карэя
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Рэспубліка Карэя
Bikol Central: Sur nin Korea
Bislama: Saot Koria
български: Южна Корея
Boarisch: Sidkorea
bosanski: Južna Koreja
brezhoneg: Republik Korea
català: Corea del Sud
čeština: Jižní Korea
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Corea del Sur
chiShona: South Korea
chiTumbuka: South Korea
Cymraeg: De Corea
dansk: Sydkorea
davvisámegiella: Lulli-Korea
Deutsch: Südkorea
ދިވެހިބަސް: ދެކުނު ކޮރެއާ
dolnoserbski: Pódpołdnjowa Koreja
Ελληνικά: Νότια Κορέα
español: Corea del Sur
Esperanto: Sud-Koreio
estremeñu: Corea del Sul
euskara: Hego Korea
eʋegbe: South Korea
فارسی: کره جنوبی
Fiji Hindi: South Korea
føroyskt: Suðurkorea
français: Corée du Sud
Gàidhlig: Coirèa a Deas
galego: Corea do Sur
贛語: 韓國
Gĩkũyũ: South Korea
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: दक्षिण कोरिया
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Thai-hòn Mìn-koet
한국어: 대한민국
hornjoserbsce: Južna Koreja
hrvatski: Južna Koreja
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: খা কোরিয়া
Bahasa Indonesia: Korea Selatan
interlingua: Corea del Sud
Interlingue: Sud-Korea
Iñupiak: Natiq Korea
íslenska: Suður-Kórea
italiano: Corea del Sud
Basa Jawa: Koréa Kidul
kalaallisut: Korea Kujalleq
Kapampangan: Mauling Korea
къарачай-малкъар: Корея Республика
kaszëbsczi: Repùblika Kòreji
kernowek: Korea Dhyhow
Kiswahili: Korea Kusini
Kreyòl ayisyen: Kore disid
Кыргызча: Түштүк Корея
لۊری شومالی: کورأ هارگأ
latviešu: Dienvidkoreja
Lëtzebuergesch: Republik Korea
lietuvių: Pietų Korėja
Ligure: Corea do Sud
Limburgs: Zuud-Korea
lingála: Koré ya Súdi
Livvinkarjala: Suvi Korea
la .lojban.: snanu zei .xanguk
lumbaart: Curea del Süd
magyar: Dél-Korea
македонски: Јужна Кореја
Malagasy: Korea Atsimo
მარგალური: ობჟათე კორეა
مازِرونی: جنوبی کره
Bahasa Melayu: Korea Selatan
Baso Minangkabau: Korea Salatan
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Dâi-hàng Mìng-guók
Dorerin Naoero: Ripubrikin Korea
Nederlands: Zuid-Korea
Nedersaksies: Zuud-Korea
नेपाल भाषा: दक्षिण कोरिया
日本語: 大韓民国
Napulitano: Corea d''o Sud
нохчийн: Къилба Корей
Nordfriisk: Süüdkorea
Norfuk / Pitkern: Sowth Koriya
norsk: Sør-Korea
norsk nynorsk: Sør-Korea
Nouormand: Corée du Sud
Novial: Sud Korea
олык марий: Кечывалвел Корей
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Koreya Respublikasi
پنجابی: دکھنی کوریا
Papiamentu: Sur Korea
Patois: Sout Koria
ភាសាខ្មែរ: កូរ៉េខាងត្បូង
Piemontèis: Coréa dël Sud
Tok Pisin: Saut Koria
Plattdüütsch: Süüdkorea
português: Coreia do Sul
Qaraqalpaqsha: Qubla Koreya
qırımtatarca: Cenübiy Koreya
română: Coreea de Sud
rumantsch: Corea dal Sid
Runa Simi: Tayhan Republika
русиньскый: Южна Корея
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱠᱚᱧᱮ ᱠᱳᱨᱤᱭᱟ
Gagana Samoa: Kolea i Saute
संस्कृतम्: दक्षिणकोरिया
sicilianu: Corea dû Sud
Simple English: South Korea
slovenščina: Južna Koreja
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Корєꙗ Димократїꙗ
Soomaaliga: Koonfur Kuuriya
српски / srpski: Јужна Кореја
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Južna Koreja
Basa Sunda: Koréa Kidul
svenska: Sydkorea
Tagalog: Timog Korea
Taqbaylit: Kurya n Wenẓul
tarandíne: Coree d'u Sud
татарча/tatarça: Көньяк Корея
ትግርኛ: ደቡብ ኮርያ
Türkçe: Güney Kore
тыва дыл: Мурнуу Корея
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Korea Selatan
українська: Південна Корея
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: كورىيە
Vahcuengh: Hanzgoz
vèneto: Corea del Sud
vepsän kel’: Korejan Tazovaldkund
Tiếng Việt: Hàn Quốc
文言: 大韓民國
West-Vlams: Zuud-Korea
吴语: 大韩民国
Xitsonga: Korea Dzonga
ייִדיש: דרום קארעע
粵語: 大韓民國
Zeêuws: Zuud-Korea
žemaitėška: Pėitū Kuoriejė
中文: 大韩民国
Lingua Franca Nova: Corea Sude