South Africa

Republic of South Africa

Motto: "ǃke e꞉ ǀxarra ǁke" (ǀXam)
"Unity in Diversity"
Location of South Africa (dark blue) in the African Union (light blue)
Location of South Africa (dark blue)

in the African Union (light blue)

Location of South Africa
Largest cityJohannesburg[2]
Official languages11 languages:[Note 1]
Recognised regional languages
Ethnic groups
See Religion in South Africa
Demonym(s)South African
GovernmentUnitary dominant-party parliamentary constitutional republic
• President
Cyril Ramaphosa
David Mabuza
National Council
National Assembly
• Union
31 May 1910
11 December 1931
• Republic
31 May 1961
4 February 1997
• Total
1,221,037 km2 (471,445 sq mi) (24th)
• Water (%)
• 2019 estimate
58,775,022[4] (24th)
• 2011 census
• Density
42.4/km2 (109.8/sq mi) (169th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$813.100 billion[6] (30th)
• Per capita
$13,865[6] (89th)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$371.298 billion[6] (33rd)
• Per capita
$6,331[6] (86th)
Gini (2014)Positive decrease 63.0[7]
very high
HDI (2017)Increase 0.699[8]
medium · 113th
CurrencySouth African rand (ZAR)
Time zoneUTC+2 (SAST)
Driving sideleft
Calling code+27
ISO 3166 codeZA

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres (1,739 mi) of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans;[9][10][11] to the north by the neighbouring countries of Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe; and to the east and northeast by Mozambique and Eswatini (Swaziland); and it surrounds the enclaved country of Lesotho.[12] South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 24th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 58 million people, is also the world's 24th-most populous nation. It is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Old World or the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Bantu ancestry,[5] divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages, nine of which have official status.[11] The remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European, Asian (Indian),[13] and multiracial (Coloured) ancestry.

South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures, languages, and religions. Its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, which is the fourth-highest number in the world.[11][11] Two of these languages are of European origin: Afrikaans developed from Dutch and serves as the first language of most coloured and white South Africans; English reflects the legacy of British colonialism, and is commonly used in public and commercial life, though it is fourth-ranked as a spoken first language. The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup d'état, and regular elections have been held for almost a century. However, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to claim more rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a large role in the country's recent history and politics. The National Party imposed apartheid in 1948, institutionalising previous racial segregation. After a long and sometimes violent struggle by the African National Congress (ANC) and other anti-apartheid activists both inside and outside the country, the repeal of discriminatory laws began in the mid-1980s.

Since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the country's liberal democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. South Africa is often referred to as the "rainbow nation" to describe the country's multicultural diversity, especially in the wake of apartheid.[14] The World Bank classifies South Africa as an upper-middle-income economy, and a newly industrialised country.[15][16] Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, and the 33rd-largest in the world. In terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa. However, poverty and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed and living on less than US$1.25 a day.[17][18] South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, and maintains significant regional influence.[19][20]


The name "South Africa" is derived from the country's geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation, the country was named the Union of South Africa in English and Unie van Zuid-Afrika in Dutch, reflecting its origin from the unification of four formerly separate British colonies. Since 1961, the long formal name in English has been the "Republic of South Africa" and Republiek van Suid-Afrika in Afrikaans. Since 1994, the country has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages.

Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning "south", is a colloquial name for South Africa,[21][22] while some Pan-Africanist political parties prefer the term "Azania".[23]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Suid-Afrika
Alemannisch: Südafrika
Ænglisc: Sūðaffrica
العربية: جنوب أفريقيا
aragonés: Sudafrica
arpetan: Africa du Sud
asturianu: Sudáfrica
Avañe'ẽ: Yvyáfrika
bamanankan: Worodugu Afrika
Bân-lâm-gú: Lâm-hui-kok
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Паўднёва-Афрыканская Рэспубліка
Bikol Central: Sur na Aprika
Boarisch: Sidafrika
brezhoneg: Suafrika
català: Sud-àfrica
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Sudafrica
Chi-Chewa: South Africa
chiShona: South Africa
Cymraeg: De Affrica
dansk: Sydafrika
davvisámegiella: Lulli-Afrihká
Deitsch: Saut Afrikaa
Deutsch: Südafrika
ދިވެހިބަސް: ދެކުނު އެފްރިކާ
dolnoserbski: Pódpołdnjowa Afrika
Ελληνικά: Νότια Αφρική
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Süd Africa
español: Sudáfrica
Esperanto: Sud-Afriko
estremeñu: Sudáfrica
euskara: Hegoafrika
Fiji Hindi: South Africa
føroyskt: Suðurafrika
français: Afrique du Sud
Gàidhlig: Afraga a Deas
galego: Suráfrica
贛語: 南非
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: Dokxin Afrika
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Nàm-fî
hornjoserbsce: Južna Afrika
Bahasa Hulontalo: Afrika Selatan
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: খা আফ্রিকা
Bahasa Indonesia: Afrika Selatan
interlingua: Africa del Sud
Interlingue: Sud-Africa
isiXhosa: UMzantsi Afrika
íslenska: Suður-Afríka
italiano: Sudafrica
Kapampangan: Mauling Aprika
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: جٔنوٗبی اَفریٖقہ
kernowek: Afrika Dhyhow
Kinyarwanda: Afurika y’Epfo
Kiswahili: Afrika Kusini
Kreyòl ayisyen: Afrik disid (peyi)
Ladino: Sud-Afrika
لۊری شومالی: آفریقا هارگٱ
latviešu: Dienvidāfrika
Lëtzebuergesch: Südafrika
Ligure: Sudafrica
Limburgs: Zuid-Afrika
lingála: Sidafríka
Lingua Franca Nova: Sudafrica
Livvinkarjala: Suvi Afriekku
la .lojban.: nanfi'ogu'e
Luganda: South Africa
lumbaart: Südafrica
Malagasy: Afrika Atsimo
مازِرونی: جنوبی آفریقا
Bahasa Melayu: Afrika Selatan
Minangkabau: Afrika Selatan
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Nàng-hĭ
Mirandés: África de l Sul
Dorerin Naoero: South Aprika
Nederlands: Zuid-Afrika
Nedersaksies: Zuud-Afrika
नेपाल भाषा: दक्षिण अफ्रिका
Nordfriisk: Süüdafrikoo
Norfuk / Pitkern: Sowth Afreka
norsk nynorsk: Sør-Afrika
Nouormand: Afrique du Sud
Novial: Sud Afrika
occitan: Sud-Africa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Janubiy Afrika Respublikasi
Papiamentu: Sur Afrika
Patois: Sout Afrika
Piemontèis: Sudàfrica
Tok Pisin: Saut Aprika
Plattdüütsch: Süüdafrika
português: África do Sul
qırımtatarca: Cenübiy Afrika
Ripoarisch: Südafrika
română: Africa de Sud
rumantsch: Africa dal Sid
Runa Simi: Urin Aphrika
русиньскый: Южна Африка
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱠᱚᱧᱮ ᱟᱯᱷᱨᱤᱠᱟ
संस्कृतम्: दक्षिण-आफ्रिका
sardu: Sudàfrica
Seeltersk: Suud-Afrikoa
Sesotho: Afrika Borwa
Sesotho sa Leboa: Afrika Borwa
Setswana: Aforika Borwa
sicilianu: Àfrica dû Sud
Simple English: South Africa
Soomaaliga: Koonfur Afrika
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Južna Afrika
svenska: Sydafrika
Tagalog: South Africa
tarandíne: Sud Afriche
Tsetsêhestâhese: Mo'hetaneho'e hánêsóvóne
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: جەنۇبىي ئافرىقا
Vahcuengh: Nanzfeih
vèneto: Sudàfrica
vepsän kel’: Suviafrikan Tazovaldkund
Tiếng Việt: Cộng hòa Nam Phi
Volapük: Sulüdafrikän
文言: 南非
West-Vlams: Zuud-Afrika
吴语: 南非
Xitsonga: Afrika-Dzonga
ייִדיש: דרום אפריקע
Zeêuws: Zuud-Afrika
中文: 南非