sound was first recorded, music was recorded—first by written
music notation, then also by mechanical devices (e.g., wind-up
music boxes, in which a mechanism turns a spindle, which plucks metal tines, thus producing a
melody). Automatic music reproduction traces back as far as the 9th century, when the
Banū Mūsā brothers invented the earliest known
mechanical musical instrument, in this case, a
organ that played interchangeable cylinders. According to Charles B. Fowler, this "...cylinder with raised pins on the surface remained the basic device to produce and reproduce music mechanically until the second half of the nineteenth century."
 The Banu Musa brothers also invented an
flute player, which appears to have been the first
 According to Fowler, the automata were a
band that performed "...more than fifty facial and body actions during each musical selection."
In the 14th century,
Flanders introduced a mechanical bell-ringer controlled by a rotating cylinder. Similar designs appeared in
barrel organs (15th century),
musical clocks (1598),
barrel pianos (1805), and
musical boxes (ca.1800). A music box is an automatic
musical instrument that produces sounds by the use of a set of
pins placed on a revolving
cylinder or disc so as to pluck the tuned teeth (or
lamellae) of a steel
comb. They were developed from musical
snuff boxes of the 18th century and called carillons à musique. Some of the more complex boxes also have a tiny
bells, in addition to the metal comb.
fairground organ, developed in 1892, used a system of accordion-folded punched cardboard books. The
player piano, first demonstrated in 1876, used a punched paper scroll that could store a long piece of music. The most sophisticated of the piano rolls were "hand-played", meaning that the roll represented the actual performance of an individual, not just a transcription of the sheet music. This technology to record a live performance onto a piano roll was not developed until 1904. Piano rolls were in continuous mass production from 1896 to 2008.
 A 1908
U.S. Supreme Court copyright case noted that, in 1902 alone, there were between 70,000 and 75,000 player pianos manufactured, and between 1,000,000 and 1,500,000 piano rolls produced.
 The use of piano rolls began to decline in the 1920s although one type is still being made today.